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TUTTON, Alfred Edwin Howard.

(1864 – 1938)

(Born: Stockport, Cheshire, England, 22 August 1864; Died: Dallington, Sussex, England, 14 July 1938) English chemist & crystallographer.

In 1883, based upon his exam scores, Tutton entered the Royal College of Science in London. There he gained prizes in chemistry and physics and the Murchison medal in geology. He was afterwards appointed demonstrator and lecturer in chemistry. He became an instructor at Oxford and Cambridge, retiring in 1927. During research work on the oxides of phosphorus, he was so attracted by the brilliant crystals that he sought out H.A. Miers of the British Museum for instruction on crystal measurement. Thus, Tutton found his life's work in recording precise measurements of crystals for series of isomorphous salts. In connection with this research, elaborate pieces of apparatus were designed under Tutton's direction. This equipment was given to the department of physics and crystallography in Manchester University. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Chemical Society and the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain.

Biographical references: Annual Register. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 266. BBA: I 1102, 224; II 1813, 22. DNB: Suppl. 1931-40, 875-6. DSB: 13, 517-8 [by D. McKie]. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 565. Mineralogical Magazine: 25 (1939), no. 165, 301-3, portrait. Nature: 60 (1899), 33 & 142 (1938), 321-2 [by J.R. Partington]. Obituary Notices of the Royal Society: 2 (1939), no. 7, 621-6, portrait. Poggendorff: 4, 1532-3 & 5, 1280 & 6, ???. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series A, 169 (1938), 9 [by W. Bragg]. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2297-8. WBI.

1. English, 1910.
Crystalline Structure | and | Chemical Constitution | By | A.E.H. Tutton | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Macmillan and Co., Limited | St. Martin's Street, London | 1910.

8°: [i]-viii, [1]-204, [4] p., illus. Page size: 220 x 142 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "Macmillan's Science Monographs | Crystalline Structure And | Chemcial Constitution," verso publisher's information.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, | ..."; [v]-vi, "Preface."-signed A.E.H. Tutton.; [vii]-viii, "Contents."; [1]-200, Text.; 201-204, "Index."; [4 pgs], Advertisements.

Very scarce. After a short historical sketch, the author describes his researches into the relationship between chemical composition and crystallography. Among other investigators, the author had studied many isomorphous series of artificial compounds of unusual purity. Some of these compounds were comparatively simple in composition, while others were very complex. Carried out over many years the result of these investigations demonstrated that crystal angles are functions of the chemical composition, much as Haüy had postulated. Tutton discusses the Haüy-Mitscherlich controversy, structure types, the nature of the atom and atoms in crystal structures, isomorphic series, and the apparatus for investigating crystals, including the cutting and grinding goniometer, monochromator, interferometer, dilatometer, optical refractometer, etc. The text describing this complex subject is written in a clear style.

Bibliographical references: Ath: 1 (1910), 252. BL [08709.c.1/1.]. Book Review Digest: 1910, p. 403. Journal of Geology: 18 (1910), 582 [review by A.D. Brokaw]. Nature: 83 (5 May 1910), 271. NUC. Science: New Series, 31 (22 April 1910), 623 [review by C. Palache]. USGS Library Catalog.

Crystallography, 1911

2. English, 1911 [First edition].
Crystallography | And | Practical | Crystal Measurement | By | A.E.H. Tutton | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Macmillan And Co., Limited | St. Martin's Street, London | 1911.

8°: [i]-xiv, [1]-544, 544a, [1], 545-946 p. Page size: 220 x 148 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "Crystallography | And | Practical Crystal Measurement," verso publisher's information.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-viii, "Preface."-signed A.E.H. Tutton.; [ix]-xiv, "Contents."; [1], Sectional title page, "Part I. | Morphological."; [2], Blank.; [3]-544, Text part one.; 544a, Sectional title page, "Part II. | Morphological."; [1 pg], Blank.; 545-933, Text part two.; [934], Blank.; 935-946, "Index."

Very scarce. One of the great modern classics in crystallography noted for its comprehensive coverage and clarity of language, it is also an important touch stone of the science written just prior to von Laue's extraordinary discoveries in 1912 of X-ray crystallography. The text is complete, with almost no topic neglected. It is furthermore a work of practical value delivering "how to do it" instructions, including the definition of crystals, choice of specimens, goniometer, measurements, axes, zones, etc., calculations, the systems, all followed by a second part on physical properties, what they are, how measured, instrumentation, etc. It avoids the forbidding mathematical treatment that pervades almost all other English textbooks in the subject instead delivering a lively review of crystallography that is comparable only to von Groth's Physikalische Krystallographie (1st ed., Munich, 1876). The many illustrations that accompany the text are of good quality and visually reinforce principles described in the text.

Bibliographical references: BL []. Book Review Digest: 1911, 475. Nation: 93 (1911), 269. NUC. Science: New Series, 34 (28 July 1911), 124 [review by C. Palache]. USGS Library Catalog.

3. English, 1922 [2nd edition].
Crystallography | And | Practical | Crystal Measurement | By | A.E.H. Tutton | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | In Two Volumes | Vol. I | Form and Structure | MacMillan and Co., Limited | St. Martin's Street, London | 1922.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [i]-xvii, 1-746, [i]-xiv, 2 p. [Vol 2] 8°: [i]-viii, 749-1446, 1-2 p., 8 plates, 931 b&w text figures. Page size: 220 x 148 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Half title page, "Crystallography | And | Practical Crystal Measurement," verso publisher's information.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Copyright."; v-vii, "Preface To Second Edition."-signed A.E.H. Tutton.; [viii], Blank.; ix-xii, "Preface To First Edition."; xiii-xvii, "Contents."; [1 pg], Blank.; ["Corrigenda To Volume I" inserted between pages].; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Part I | Crystal Form And Geometry."; [2], Blank.; 3-493, Text part one.; [494], Blank.; 495, Sectional title page, "Part II | Crystal Structure And Its X-Ray | Analysis."; [496], Blank.; 497-746, Text part two.; [i]-xiv, "Index."; [2 pgs], Advertisements.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Half title page, "Crystallography | And | Practical Crystal Measurement," verso publisher's information.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Copyright."; v-viii, "Contents."; 747, "Part III | Crystal Optics And Microscopy."; [748], Blank.; 749-1218, Text part three.; 1219, Sectional title page, "Part IV | Crystal Chemistry, Deformational Physics | And Its Interferometry."; [1220], Blank.; 1221-1418, Text part four.; 1419-1446, "Index."; 1-2, Advertisements.

Very scarce. Based upon the first edition of 1911 these two volumes form a nadir point in descriptive crystallography in the English language. Since the first edition's appearance, crystal science had had a remarkable advance in knowledge due the X-ray study of crystal structure. All of the material and illustrations of the author's monograph, Crystalline Structure and Chemical Constitution has been incorporated in this edition. Furthermore, so much more material has been added, that it became necessary an to issue the work in two volumes. It follows along the lines of the earlier works and is written in a clear style that even today can convey its meanings successfully, and is fully and beautifully illustrated.Volume I, Crystal Form and Structure is divided into two parts: (a) Crystal Form and Goniometry, and (b) Crystalline Structure; and its X-ray Analysis. In Part I, the fundamental laws, the geometrical properties of crystals, and the various methods of measurement are discussed in great detail. Part II is one of the most important sections of the book, since it contains chapters summarizing the advances made since the introduction of X-ray analysis. This is clearly seen from the following list of subjects considered in this part: -Composite Crystals and Twinning; Cleavage, (Hiding; Asterism;; Hardness; Crystal Viscosity; Foam Cell and Pulsation-Cell Theories; Crystals as Homogeneous Structures; Density. Volume. and Structure; 14 Space Lattices; Molecular Distance Ratios; 65 Regular Point Systems and the 230 Space Groups; Determination of the Density of Crystals and Calculation of Volume Constants; X-ray and Crystal Structure; Absolute Measurement of the Dimensions of the Space Lattice Cell. - Methods of Laue, Bragg, and Debye and Scherrer; Law of Atomic Diameters; Fedorov's Theory of Cubic and Hypohexagonal Types and of the Correct Descriptive Setting of Crystals: His Method of Crystallochemical Analysis; Theory of Pope and Barlow; Moseley's Law, Atomic Number and Atomic Structure.Volume II, Physical and Chemical, is also made up of two parts, III and IV. Tart III, which is given over to Crystal Optics and Microscopy, contains a systematic discussion of the optical properties of crystals and the methods involved in their determination. Crystal Chemistry and Informational Physics and its Chemistry; zre the general subjects assigned to Part I. Here, isomorphism and related topics, the thermal, elastic, electrical, magnetic properties of crystals, and "liquid crystals" are treated.

Facsimile reprint, 1964-5: Crystallography and Practical Crystal Measurement. New Delhi, Today & Tomorrow's Book Agency, [1964-65]. 2 vols.

Bibliographical references: American Mineralogist: 7 (1922), 160 [review by E.H. Kraus]. BL [X.629/4833.]. NUC. USGS Library Catalog.

Crystals, 1911

4. English, 1911.
The International Scientific Series | [rule] | Crystals | By | A.E.H. Tutton | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | With 120 Illustrations | London | Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd | Dryden House, Gerrard Street, W. | 1911.

8°: [i]-x, [1]-301, [3] p., 24 black and white plates, 120 illus. Page size: 184 x 118 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "International Scientific Series | Volume XCVIII," verso blank.; [Frontispiece, "Direct Reproductions Of Autochrome Photo- | graphs Of Screen Pictures In Polarised Light."]; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; v-vii, "Preface."-signed A.E.H. Tutton, January 1911.; [viii], Blank.; [ix]-x, "Index."; [1]-294, Text.; 295-301, "Index."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Printed By | Turnbull And Spears, | Edinburgh."; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. Written as an expansion of a lecture given before the British Association at Winnipeg in 1909, Crystals is particularly interesting, not only as an attempt to describe the development of the science, but also on account of the detailed descriptions of many experimental illustrations. Its aim is to present the science of crystallography to the general reading public in a manner which can be understood by all, including descriptions of simple experiments for the instructor of crystallography.

Bibliographical references: BL [2324.c.4.]. Book Review Digest: 1912, 458. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 82. Education Review: 42 (1911), 310 [review by A.J. Moses]. Nature: 88 (1 Feb. 1912), 440. NUC. USGS Library Catalog.

5. English, 1924 [Revised & enlarged edition].
The Natural History | of | Crystals | By | A.E.H. Tutton | D.Sc. M.A. (New College, Oxon), F.R.S. | Past President of the Mineralogical Society | With 166 Illustrations | including 32 Half-Tone Plates and Frontispiece in Colour | London | Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. | New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. | 1924.

8°: xii, 287 p., 32 plates.

Scarce. This work represents a revised and somewhat enlarged edition of the author's former book "Crystals" which appeared in 1911. Some of the chapters are the same as in the earlier volume. The progress that has been made since the appearance of the earlier text, especially in the field of X-ray analysis and crystal structure, has necessitated the introduction of considerable new material. Chapters on "The Nature of Atoms" and "The Revelation of Crystal Structure by X-Rays" have been introduced in order to bring the book up-to-date, that is, to the date of publication, Novermber 1923. The work has it now stands comprises 21 chapters adn 166 illustrations as compared with 17 chapters and 120 illustrations of the former text. An excellent glossary describing over eighty technical terms has been added. The book states that the text "is intended for the general reader more of less interested in the natural science." It is extremely doubtful if this work could serve in that capacity as the treatment is often quite technical and the style, at times, involved. The book can serve to advantage as collateral reading for students pursuing more or less advanced work in crystallography. The numerous illustrations are excellent and well chosen. [The American Mineralogist (1925); vol. 10, p. 446]

Bibliographical references: American Mineralogist: 10, 446. BL []. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 82. NUC.

6. English, 1927.
The Natural History | Of Ice And Snow | Illustrated From The Alps | By | A.E.H. Tutton | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | With 48 full-page plates (174 figures) | 16 text illustrations and a map | "O ye Ice and Snow, bless ye the Lord: | Praise Him, and magnify Him for ever" | London | Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd. | Broadway House: 68-74 Carter Lane, E.C. | 1927.

8°: xvi, 319 p., plates XLVIII. Scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL []. NUC.