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SCOPOLI, Giovanni Antonio.

(1721 – 1788)

(Born: Cavalles near Trent, Italy, 3 June 1721; Died: Pavia, Italy, 8 May 1788) Hungarian physician, chemist & botanist.

In 1766, Scopoli was appointed professor of mineralogy at the mining academy in Schemitz Hungary. Then in 1777, he was named professor of chemistry and natural history at the University of Pavia in Italy.After the studies in medicine to Innsbruck, it exercised the profession in the hospital of Trento and therefore to Venice, where it began to be interested of botany. Moved in the territories of the Austrian Empire doctor of the mining city of Idria in Carniola was name and therefore university professor of chemistry, mineralogy and metallurgy to the Mining Academy of Schemnitz, from 1769 to 1776. In these years it produced to its scientific works more rinomate than botanical and of mineralogy. In 1777 he was called to cover the chair of chemistry and botany to the university of Pavia, assignment that conserved until the year of the dead women, although its involvement in the failed attempt to discredit the colleague Lazzaro Spallanzani to the eyes of the university and governmental authorities.

Biographical references: ABI: I 900, 5-22; II 563, 324; II S 76, 197-205. Baldinger, Biographien Ärzte, 1768-71. Benvenuti, Dizionario degli Italiani all'Estero, 1890. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana Roma: 30 (1911), CDXC ff. Bonomi, Naturalisti, Medici e Tecnici Trentini, 1930. DBA: I 1166, 141-181. Hacquet, B., La vita di Belsazar Hacquet ed il suo viaggio a vela sulla Sava da Lubiana a Semlin. Autobiografia di Joannes Antonius Scopoli a cura di G. Pilleri e D. Music. Waldau-Bern, Schweiz, Verlag des Hirnanatomischen Institutes, 1984. 119 p., [1] folded leaf of plates, illus., facsims., ports. [Contains biographies of B. Hacquet and G.A. Scopoli.]. Imperatori, Dizionario di Italiani all'Estero, 1956. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 457. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 392. Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon: 2, 608-9. Meusel, Verstorbenen Teutschen Schrifsteller, 1802-16. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 590-1. Poggendorff: 2, col. 880. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: 5, 453-6. Stanojevic, S., Narodna Enciklopedija Srpsko-Hrvatsko-Slovenac Izdavac, 4, (1929), 63 [By K. Nedeljko.]. WBI. Wellcome Catalog (History): 17, 557 [10 refs.]. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994. World Who's Who in Science: 1509. Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon Österreich, 1856-91.

De Hydrargyro Idriensi, 1761

1. Latin, 1761 [First edition].
Joannis Antonii | Scopoli | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | De Hydrargyro | Idriensi | Tentamina | Physico-Chymico-Medica | I. De Mineral Hydrargyri. | II. De Vitriolo Idriensi. | III. De Morbis Fossorum Hydrargyri. | [ornament] | Venetiis, | Ex Typographia Radiciana. MDCCLXI. | [ornate rule] | Superirum Permissu.

8°: [7], 160 p.

Rare. Mercury in Idrija comes in two guises: as cinnabar (mercury sulphide, HgS) rock inclusions, and as pure mercury, referred to as `native' mercury.Mercury was first exported via Venice to Levante, and later also to Germany and Holland, to be further exported to Mexico and Peru for use in amalgamation in silver and gold mines there. Since 1659 Amsterdam was the main export center. In 1785-1797, up to 700 tons of mercury were exported to Spain yearly.In the 16th century, Paracelsus visited Idrija and introduced mercury in medicine. Joannes Antonius Scopoli served as medical doctor in Idrija from 1745 to 1769. (1761 is the year of the first lace and of the work by Scopoli: De Hydrargyro Idriensi.) Balthasar Hacquet, who also wrote the Oryctographia Carniolica, lived in Idrija from 1766 to 1773; at that time, Idrija was the second largest town in Carniola.Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition . It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The mercury mine in Idria is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centureis. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else ; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly dexcribed the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work « De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica » (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors wera Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. LKG: XVI 378. Slavec, Z.Z., "Occupational medicine in Idria Mercury Mine in 18th century", Vesalius - Acta Internationales Historiae Medicinae, 4, (1998), no. 1, 51-59. Valentinitsch, H., "Die Versorgung des Bergwerks Idrija (Idria) mit Gefässen für die Quecksilbergewinnung 1490-1750," (pp. 21-32) in: Bergbaureviere als Verbrauchszentren im vorindustriellen Europa: Fallstudien zu Beschaffung und Verbrauch von Lebensmitteln sowei Roh- und Hilfsstoffen (13.-18. Jahrhundert). - Franz Steiner, 1997. Wellcome Catalog (Books): ??.

2. Latin, 1771 [2nd edition].
Ioann. Ant. Scopoli S.C.R. et apost. ... De hydrargyro idriensi tentamina physico-chymico-medica. I. De minera hydrargyri, II. De vitriolo idriensi, III. De morbis fossorum hydrargyri Giovanni Antonio Scopoli. - Denuo edidit J.C.T. Schlegel ... Jenae et Lipsiae, Apud Joann. Guil. Hartung, 1771.

8°: A-E8 F7; 47l.; 94 p.

Rare. Edited by Johann Christian Traugott Schlegel [1746-1824].

Bibliographical references: BL [B.247.(1.).].

3. German, 1786 [German transl.].
Physikalisch-chemische Abhandlung vom Idrianischen Quecksilber und Vitrol. Uebersetzt von Karl, Freyherrn von Meidinger. München, J. Lindauer, 1786.

8°: 108 p.

Rare. Translation by Karl Freiherr von Meidinger of De Hydrargryro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chemico-Medica (Venetia, 1761).

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. LKG: XVI 379. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335035]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. ??.

Einleitung zur Kenntniss, 1769

4. German, 1769 [First edition].
Joh. Ant. Scopoli | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Einleitung | zur | Kenntniß und Gebrauch | der | Foßilien. | Für die Studirenden. | [ornament] | [rule] | Riga und Mietau, | In Verlag Johann Friedrich Hartknochs | 1769.

8°: *2 A-M8 N2; 108l.; [20], [1]-195, [1] p. Page size: 194 x 120 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication.; [8 pgs], "Vorrede."; [8 pgs], "Inhalt." [=overview of classification].; [1]-195, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. This is Scopoli's first text book on mineralogy. It is an introductory work in mineralogical science, written for the student, and based upon the author's own experience in studying and arranging his mineral collection. Scopoli had become interested in minerals while studying the mercury mines of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1760, and being a curious naturalist had built a substantial cabinet of minerals and fossils. These he arranged according to his own classification system containing two classes: (1) earths and (2) mined substances (`Minern'). Within the first class are contained limestone, chalk, gypsum, clay, mica, asbestos, precious stones, crystal, quartz, fluorite, sandstone, etc., while the second class lists salts, hard earths like opal, amber, sulfur, and precious, semiprecious and semi-metals.

Bibliographical references: Beckmann P.Ö.B.: 1, 141. Berlinische Sammlungen: 1, 537 & 9, 319. BL [970.g.1.]. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 2, 354-5. LKG: XII 65. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335020]. Wrany, Pflege der Mineralogie in Böhmen, 1898: 53.

Principia Mineralogiæ, 1772

5. Latin, 1772 [First edition].
Joannis Antonii | Scopoli, | [...8 lines of titles and membeships...] | Principia | Mineralogiæ | Systematicæ | Et | Practicæ | Succincte Exhibentia | Structuram Telluris, Systema- | ta Mineralogica, Lapidum Classes, | Genera, Species, Cum Præcipuis Varietati- | bus Eorumque Characteribus, Synonymis, | Analysi Et Usu, Nec Non Regulis Nonnul- | lis Generalibus, Ad Docimasiam Et Py- | rotechniam Metallurgicam | Pertinentibus. | [double rule] | Vetero-Pragæ | Apud Wolfgangum Gerle 1772.

8°: )(10 A-O8 P2; 119l.; [8], i-xii, 1-228 p., frontispiece (portrait of Scopoli).

Contents: [Frontispiece.]; [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Via triplex per Renum lapidium, ..."; [1 pg], "Omnibus | Et | Singulis | Qui | Studio | Mineralogico | Generis Humani | Commoda Provent | Opusculum | HDC | D.D. | Author."; [1 pg], Blank.; [4 pgs], "Præfatio."; i-xii, Outline of mineralogical system.; 1-226, Text.; 227-228, "Vocabula | Latina rerum nonnullarum, | Germanice exposita." with printer's device at the end.

Rare. Pages 1-8 provide a short overview of Scopoli's views on the structure of the earth in a section titled, "Structura Telluris." A descriptive mineralogy arranged along the scheme outlined on pages i-xii then occupies the text from page 1 until page 226. At the conclusion is a short glossary equating Latin and German terms.

Bibliographical references: Beckmann P.Ö.B.: 4, 124. Berlinische Sammlungen: 8, 670 & 9, 319. BL [990.f.4.]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 489. LKG: XII 66a. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 033038]. Schröter's Journal für die Liebhaber: 3, 137. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2009. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: p. 192.

Anfangsgründe, 1775

6. German, 1775 [German transl.].
Johann Anton Scopoli, | [...7 lines of titles and memberships...] | Anfangsgründe | der | systematischen und praktischen | Mineralogie, | kürzlich vorstellend | Den Bau der Erdkugel, die mineralogischen Lehr- | gebäude, die Klassen, Geschlechter, Arten und vornehm- | sten Abänderungen der Steine, dann ihre Kennzeichen, | Synonimen, Zerlegung und Gebrauch, nicht we- | niger einige allgemeine zur Probier = und | Schmelzkunst gehörige Regeln. | [rule] | Aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt | von Karl, des H. Röm. Reichs Freyherrn | und Rittern | von | Meidinger, | Herrn zu Meidingen und Lauterbach. | [rule] | Prag, bey Wolfgang Gerle. | 1775.

8°: )(8 )()(4 A-M8; 113l.; [14], I-X, [1]-192 p. Page size: 192 x 118 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Durch das Steinreich geht ein drey= | facher Weg."; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], Blank.; [6 pgs], "Vorrede | des Uebersetzers."; [4 pgs], "Vorrede des Verfassers."; I-X, "Die | Klassen, Geschlechter, ..."; [1]-192, Text.

Very scarce. Translation by Karl Freiherr von Meidinger of Principia Mineralogiæ Systematicæ et Practicæ (1st ed., Vetero-Pragæ, 1772).

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 8, 671. BL [726.f.1.]. Leipziger allgemeines Verzeichniss: 1776, 65. LKG: XII 67b. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335014]. Schröter's Journal für die Liebhaber: 3, 137-42.

7. Italian, 1778 [Italian transl.].
Principj | Di Mineralogia | Sistematica E Pratica | Che Succintamente Contengono | La Struttura della Terra, li Sistemi Mineralogici, le Classi | delle Pietre, i Generi, le Specie, colle principali loro | Varieta, Caratteri, Sinonimi, Analisi, ed Uso, | Come ancora | Alcune regole generali appartenenti alla Docimasia, | alla Pirotechnia Metallurgica ec. ec. | Del Signor | Giovannantonio [sic] Scopoli, | [...7 lines of titles and memberships...] | [double rule] | Traduzione | Dal Latino In Italiano, | Con Aggiunta Di Varie Note, ec. | [ornament] | In Venezia, MDCCLXXVIII. | Presso Giambattista Novelli | Con Licenza de' Saperlori, e Privilegio.

8°: π4 A-P8 Q2; 132l.; [i]-xvi, 1-246, [2] p. Page size: 135 x 210 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, verso blank (missing from copy examined).; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Via triplex per Regnum lapideum. | ..."; [v], "A Tutti Ed A Ciascuno | Di Quelli Che Collo Studio | Della | Mineralogia | Promuovono I Comodi Del Genere Umano | L' Autore | D.D. | Quest' Opuscolo."; [vi], Blank.; vii-xii, Dedication, dated 20 November 1775.; xii-xvi, "Prefazione | dell'Autore."; 1-246, Text.; [1 pg], Errata.; [1 pg], Blank.

Very rare. Translation by Angelo Gualandris [see note below] and Giovanni Arduino from Principia Mineralogiæ Systematicæ (1st ed., Vetero-Pragæ, 1772). Numerous notes were added by the translators. The text begins with a dedication by the translator (pp. vii-xii), and continues with the author's preface (pp. xiii-xvi). An outline of Scopoli's method of classification, as set forth in this work, is found at the beginning of the work (pp. 1-11), followed by a discussion of general mineralogical principles, including a review of previous mineralogical systems (pp. 12-29). Scopoli's classification scheme is then set forth in the remainder of the volume (pp. 30-246).

Angelo Gualandris. (Born: 1750; Died: 1788) Italian physician & naturalist. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. L'Espirit des Journal: May 1778, 373. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335037]. (Gualandris) ABI: I 517, 413-419. DBA: I 433, 459-460. WBI. Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon Österreich, 1856-91.

Crystallographia Hungarica, 1776

8. Latin, 1776 [First edition].
[Contained within a ornate, engraved box] Joan. Ant. Scopoli | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Crystallographia | Hungarica. | Pars I. | exhibens | Crystallos indolis terræ | cum Figuris rariorum. | [Inscribed on the border] Pragæ apud Wolfgangum Gerle 1776.

4°: π1 )(6 A-R4 S2; 127l.; [14], [1]-139, [1] p., 19 folding engraved plates of mineral specimens, engraved title page, printer's device (p. 139). Page size: 230 x 170 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Half title page, "Jo. Ant. Scopoli Crystallographia Hungarica. Pars I.," verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication to "Joanni Friderico."; [4 pgs], "Præatio"-dated January 1774.; [4 pgs], "Crystallographiæ" [=synopsis of the classification scheme].; [1]-139, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 19 folding plates of mineral specimens (no crystal drawings!).

Rare. Only the first part of this work which was to encompass all the minerals of Hungary was published. The plates show numerous figures of minerals specimens.

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 6, ??. BL [457.a.15.]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 80. Hoover Collection: no. 738. LKG: XIV 845. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335017].

9. Latin, 1777.
Introductio ad historiam natvralem, sistens genera lapidvm, plantarvm et animalivm hactenus detecta, caracteribvs essentialibvs donata, in tribvs divisa, svbinde ad leges natvrae. Pragae, Wolfgangum Gerle, 1777.

8°: [8], 506, [34] p. Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [955.f.20.].

10. Latin, 1769-72 [Periodical].
Ioannis Antonii Scopoli | Annvs I. [-V.] | Historico- | Naturalis. | [ornate rule] | [...list of contents...] | [ornament] | [rule] | Lipsiæ, | svmtib. Christ. Gottlog Hilscheri, | MDCCLXIX [-MDCCLXXII].

5 vols.

Rare. An interesting early periodical by the famous physician-naturalist, containing articles on mineralogy, botany and other natural history subjects.

Bibliographical references: BL [957.b.14.]. LKG: VI 45. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335015]. Wood, Literature of Vertebrate Zoology, 1931: p. 559.

11. German, 1770-81 [German transl.].
Bemerkungen aus der Naturgeschichte. Aus dem Latein Anmerkung. Der 1. Jahrg. v. F.C. Gunther, der 2. und 3. von K. von Meidinger. Leipzig und Wien, 1770-81.

3 vols.

Rare. German translation of Annus ... historico-naturalis.1: Erstes Jahr - welches die Vögel seines eigenen Cabinets und zugleich einige seltene, die er in dem Kayserl. Thiergarten und in der Sammlung des Hrn. Grafen Franz Hannibal von Thurn gesehen, beschreibet (1770). 2: Zweites Jahr - enthaltend: I. Die Reise nach Görz ; II. Die Reise nach Tyrol ; III. Bemerkungen über den Pfebenkürbis ; IV. Die Arzneikräften der Isländischen Flechte (1781). 3: Drittes Jahr - enthaltend: I. Die Beantwortung der Frage: ob die Aerzte, wie Plinius sagt, einmal aus Rom gejagt worden? ; II. Eine Abhandlung von der Rindviehseuche ; III. Einige Beobachtungen über das Berlinerblau und andere Lacke ; IV. Versuche mit dem Nagyager Golderze (1781).

Bibliographical references: LKG: VI 46a.

12. Latin, 1772 [Continuation].
Joann. Ant. Scopoli ... Dissertationes ad Scientiam Naturalem Pertinentes. Pars I. Tentamen Mineralogicum de Schematibus Metallorum. De Minera Argenti Rubra. De Sinopi Hungarica Sinopl Dicta. Plantæ Subtereaneæ Descriptæ & Delineatæ. Pragæ, Sumptibus Wolfgangum Gerle, 1772.

3 parts. 8°: 120 p., 46 folding plates, numbered I-XLVI.

Rare. Intended as a continuation of Annus Historico-Naturalis (5 vols., Lipsiæ, 1769-72).

Bibliographical references: BL [957.g.20.]. LKG: VI 47b. NUC: 533, 503-4 [NS 0335019].