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(1729 – 1811)

(Born: Aldermanbury, London, England, 28 December 1729; Died: Menabilly, Cornwall, England, 26 June 1811) English antiquarian & mineral collector.

Born the eldest son of Jonathan Rashleigh, a member of parliament and Cornish landowner, Philip attended New College at Oxford, but left without earning a degree. Following his father's death, he was elected a member of parliament in 1764 for the family borough of Fowey (or Fawy), and held his seat continuously until the dissolution of the body in 1802. During his later years he was known as "the Father of the House of Commons." Rashleigh was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of London.

Biographical references: BBA: I 915, 132-134. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 240. DNB: 16, 743-4 [by W.P. Courtney]. Embry, P.G. and R.F. Symes, Minerals of Cornwall and Devon. London, British Museum (NH) and Mineralogical Record Inc., Tucson, Az., 1987. [1]-154 p. Jones, R.W., "Philip Rashleigh and his Specimens of British Minerals, (1797 and 1802)", Mineralogical Record, 26, (1995), no. 4, 77-84, portrait. Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall: 15 (1903), 342-7. Russell, A., "Philip Rashleigh of Menabilly, Cornwall, and his mineral collection", Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall. New Series, 1, (1952), no. 2, 96-118, portrait. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 1947. WBI.

Specimens of British Minerals, 1797

1. English, 1797-1802.
Specimens | Of | British Minerals | Selected From | The Cabinet | Of | Phillip Rashleigh, | Of Menabilly, In The County Of Cornwall, Esq. M.P. | F.R.S. And F.A.S. | With | General Description Of Each | Article. | London: | [double rule] | Printed By W. Bulmer And Co. | And Sold By G. Nicol, Bookseller To His Majesty, Pall-Mall, | And Messrs. White, Booksellers, Fleet-Street. | 1797.

[Title page of the second part reads:]

Specimens | ... | Article. | The Second Part. | ... | Printed By W. Bulmer And Co. | Cleveland-Row, St. Jame's; | And Sold By G. And W. Nicol, Booksellers To His Majesty, | Pall-Mall; And J. White, Fleet-Street. | May, 1802.

[Part 1: 1797] 4°: [2], [1]-56, [2] p., 33 hand-colored engraved plates. [Part 2: 1802] 4°: [4], 1-23, [2] p., 21 hand-colored engraved plates. Page size: 274 x 214 mm.

Contents: [Part 1] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Introduction."; [1]-56, Text, being a description of the plates.; [1 pg], "Specific Gravities of Several Minerals."; [1 pg], blank.

[Part 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Observations."; 1-23, Text, being a description of the plates.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Section of the Stream Work at Poth."; [1 pg], Blank.

Plates: All the plates are finely hand-colored with each figure numbered. No descriptions of the objects appear on the plates and the modern species names listed below are derived from the accompanying letterpress. The plates of part one comprise:

Pl. 1 (p. 1), Cassiterite-St. Austell, Goos Moor, Gaverigan, and St. Column, 17 figs. Pl. 2 (p. 5), Cassiterite-Proth, St. Blazie, Sundrycock, St. Blazie, Carnan, Rerran Arworthall, and the Pell Mine, St. Agnes, 5 figs. Pl. 3 (p. 7), Cassiterite-Dartmoor, Debenshire, Huel Jewel, Gwennap, Dartmoor, and Carvath Mine, St. Austell, 4 figs. Pl. 4 (p. 8), Cassiterite-Glassteining Mine, St. Austell, Trevascus Mine, Gwinear, and Huel Kine, St. Agnes, 4 figs. Pl. 5 (p. 10), Cassiterite-Pell Mine, St. Agnes, Trevaunance, Huel Prosper, St. Agnes, and Glassteining Mine, St. Mewan, 6 figs. Pl. 6 (p. 12), ??-Cook's Kitchen, Illogan, and Chalcopyrite-Pell Adit, St. Agnes, 6 figs. Pl. 7 (p. 14) Chalcopyrite-Cuanhaven, St. Agnes, Cook's Kitchen and Llandidno, Denbighshire, 6 figs. Pl. 8 (p. 16), ??-Tincroft, Illogan and Reskear Mine, Huel Rosewarne, 4 figs. and Cuprite-Tincroft, Illogan, 1 fig. Pl. 9 (p. 18), ??-Cook's Kitchen, Chalcophyillite-Tincroft, Oivenite-Tincroft, and ??-Tincroft, 4 figs. Pl. 10 (p. 19), Chalcopyrite-Carharrack, Gwennap, Olivenite-Carharrack, and Chalcocite-Carharrack, 7 figs. Pl. 11 (p. 21), Olivenite-Carharrack and Cook's Kitchen, 6 figs. Pl. 12 (p. 23), ??-Carharrack and Malachite-Carharrack, 5 figs. Pl. 13 (p. 25), Malachite-Huel Carpenter, Gwinear, 1 fig. Pl. 14 (p. 26), ??-Carharrack, Torbernite-Carharrack and Huel Carpenter and Olivenite-Carharrack, 4 figs. Pl. 15 (p. 28), Chalcocite-Cook's Kitchen and Padstow, 6 figs. Pl. 16 (p. 30), Chalcotrichite-Huel Prosper, and Cuprite-Gwennap and Copper-United Mines, Gwennap, 3 figs. Pl. 17 (p. 31), Native copper-Copper-United Mines, Gwennap, Botallack Adit, St. Just, Lizard, Copper-Foldory, Gwennap, and Copper-Mullion, Lizard, 8 figs. Pl. 18 (p. 33), Chalcocite-Padstow, Siderite cast-Huel Cock, St. Just, marcasite-Blandford, Dorsetshire, and ??-Scotland, 5 figs. Pl. 19 (p. 34), Bournonite-Huel Boys, Endellion, 2 figs. Pl. 20 (p. 35), Calcite-Ball's Eye Mine, Bonsal and Hemimorphite(?)-Halken Moutain, Worksworth, Derbyshire and Bonsal Dale, Derbyshire, 6 figs. Pl. 21 (p. 36), Pyrite-Poldice, Gwennap and ??-Huel Fancy, 5 figs. Pl. 22 (p. 37), Pyrite, 1 fig. Pl. 23 (p. 38), Fluorite-Pell Mine, St. Agnes, 5 figs. Pl. 24 (p. 40), Fluorite with quartz-Beer Alston Mine, Poldice, Gwennap and Pell Mine, St. Agnes, 3 figs. Pl. 25 (p. 41), Calcite-Alston Moor, Durham and Cumberland, 5 figs. Pl. 26 (p. 42), Calcite-Cumberland Mine, Matlock, 1 fig. Pl. 27 (p. 43), Quartz-Carrow Gill, Cumberland, 1 fig. Pl. 28 (p. 44), Selenite-Cumberland Mine, Matlock, 1 fig. Pl. 29 (p. 45), Selenite-Cumberland Mine, Matlock, 3 figs. Pl. 30 (p. 46), Cerussite-Tipperary, Ireland, Burne Mine, Durham, Mendip Hills, Bristol and Huel Rose, Low Pool, 4 figs. Pl. 31 (p. 47), Galena and sphalerite-Derbyshire, 4 figs. Pl. 32 (p. 48), Cassiterite-St. Austell, Sithney Parish, Huel Prosper, St. Agnes, Wherry Mine, Penzance, Gaverigan, St. Dennis, Huel King and Trevaunace, 20 figs. Pl. 33 (p. 52), Chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bournonite, olivenite and ??, 31 figs.

The plates of part two comprise: Pl. 1 (p. 1), Chalcocite-Tincroft, 1 fig. Pl. 2 (p. 2), Libethenite--Huel Providence, 1 fig. Pl. 3 (p. 3), Clinoclase--Huel Providence, 1 fig. Pl. 4 (p. 4), Liroconite--Huel Providence, 1 fig. Pl. 5 (p. 5), Clinoclase--Huel Mutterel, 1 fig. Pl. 6 (p. 6), Olivenite, 1 fig. Pl. 7 (p. 7), ??--Huel Unity, 1 fig. Pl. 8 (p. 8), Cuprite--Huel Mutterel, 1 fig. Pl. 9 (p. 9), ??--Huel Mutterel, Huel Gorland and Huel Providence, 6 figs. Pl. 10 (p. 10), Chalcophyllite--Huel Gorland, Liroconite--Huel Unity and Huel Gorland, 5 figs. Pl. 11 (p. 11), ??--Huel Mutterel, Liroconite--Huel Gorland, ??--Huel Mutterel and Huel Gorland, Cuprite--Huel Providence, 5 figs. Pl. 12 (p. 13), Connellite--Huel Providence, ??--Huel Gorland, Huel Mutterel and Huel Providence, 6 figs. Pl. 13 (p. 15), Cassiterite/calcedony--Pednandra, 1 fig. Pl. 14 (p. 16), Cassiterite--Sithney and St. Enedor, 5 figs. Pl. 15 (p. 18), Galena--Derbyshire, 1 fig. Pl. 16 (p. 19), Pyromorphite--Huel Edgcumbe, Chalcopyrite--Ecton Mine, Derbyshire, ??--Derbyshire, Galena/Pyrite--Derbyshire and Cerargarite--Huel Mexico, Cornwall, 5 figs. Pl. 17 (p. 20), Hematite--St. Stephan's, Brannel, 1 fig. Pl. 18 (p. 21), Serpentine--Lizard and Talc--Stowes-End Mine, Linkinghorne, 4 figs. Pl. 19 (p. 22), Mamillary Echinus--North Fleet, 1 fig. Pl. 20 (p. 23), Bivalve Fossil--Colebrook Dale, 1 fig. Pl. 21 (p. 25), Section of the Stream Work at Poth, 1 fig.

Rare, especially in complete sets. This sumptuous publication describes and illustrates selected specimens from the very large collection of Cornish minerals and fossils formed by the author. Rashleigh began to collect minerals around 1765, and since the upper oxide zones of many mines in the area were at that time just beginning to be explored, he was able to assemble over the remainder of his life probably the finest private collection of Cornish minerals ever. This work, published in two parts, describes and illustrates some of the finest specimens from his collection.

The first part was written in 1797 partially as a response to the numerous requests Rashleigh had from his many visitors and foreign correspondents for an illustrated catalog of his collection. The beautiful copper engravings show recognizable classic specimens of cassiterite and various other rare and common copper species, such as chalcophyillite, liroconite, cuprite and pharmacosiderite. These excellent illustrations were the result of the Cornish engraver Henry Bone [1755-1834] efforts. The first part was so well received that in 1802 a second part was prepared and published. For this volume, the services of the engraver Thomas Medland [?-1833] and the colorist Thomas Richard Underwood [1765-1836] were retained, and the same high quality was maintained. However, the text of both volumes shows Rashleigh ignorance of mineralogy as a science. The descriptions do not reference the common mineralogical names of the species illustrated. Nor does the author reference any other mineralogical works. Instead, Rashleigh describes the minerals with his own peculiar nomenclature. But this is a small thing for a work that was written with the pride of a proud collector, for an audience of other collectors.

It would appear that the second part, published five years after the original is an uncommon item. Often only the first part of this work is offered for sale; seldom are both parts present. This is probably an effect of the second part being published as an afterthought by Rashleigh.

Bibliographical references: BL. BMC: 4, 1646. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 79. Edinburgh Review: 4 (1803), 117-20 [part 1 only]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 451. Jones, R.W., "Philip Rashleigh and his Specimens of British Minerals, (1797 and 1802)", Mineralogical Record, 26, (1995), no. 4, 77-84, portrait. LKG: XIV 443. NUC: 481, 564 [NR 0062780 & NR 0062781]. Russell, A., "Philip Rashleigh of Menabilly, Cornwall, and his mineral collection", Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall. New Series, 1, (1952), no. 2, 96-118, portrait. Smith, Early Mineralogy in Great Britain, 1978: 53-4. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1833. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 71-4, 78, 79, 189 & 221.