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PALLAS, Peter Simon.

(1741 – 1811)

(Born: Berlin, Germany, 22 September 1741; Died: Berlin, Germany, 8 September 1811) German physician & naturalist.

Pallas was invited by Catherine the Great to work at the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, and consequently had a tremendous influence the development of science in Russia in the 18th century. Pallas was also responsible for establishing the botanical, zoological and geological collections at St. Petersburg. He was one of the most distinguished naturalists of his time.

Biographical references: ADB: 25, 81. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 197. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 222-3. DBA: I 928, 306-319; II 980, 5-9. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: nos. 4042-5. DSB: 10, 283-5. Gilbert, Deceased Entomologists, 1977: 286. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834. Henze, Enzyklopädie der Entdecker, 1978. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 266. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 326-7. Moliavko, Geologi Biograficheskii, 1985: p. 203. Poggendorff: 2, col. 348 & 7a, 485-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 1842, Suppl. 1 (1986), 2, 680 & Suppl. 2 (1996), 2, 960-1. WBI. Wendland, Folkwart and Karl-Bernhard Jubitz. "Der Beitrag von Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) zum Weltbild der Geowissenschaften. Eine Bestandsaufnahme", Zeitschrift für geologischen Wissenschaften, 8 (1980), no. 2, 119-33, 2 illus. Wendland, F., Peter Simon Pallas, 1741-1811: Materialien einer Biographie. Berlin; New York, W. de Gruyter, 1992. 2 vols. (xviii, 1176 p.) [Published as: Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin beim Friedrich-Meinecke-Institut der Freien Universität Berlin. vol. 80.; ISBN 3110129973; Biography of Pallas.]. World Who's Who in Science: 1301.

Account of Pallas' First Expedition

Reise, 1771

1. German, 1771-6 [First edition].
P.S. Pallas | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Reise | durch | verschiedene Provinzen | des | Rußischen Reichs. | [rule] | Erster Theil. | [rule] | [ornament].

3 vols. [Vol 1: 1771] 4°: ):(4 ):():(2 A-Rrr4; 258l.; [12], [1]-504 p., 25 plates (incl. maps). [Vol 2: 1773] 4°: ):(4 A-Aaaaa4; 376l.; [8], [1]-744 p., 34 plates (incl. maps). [Vol 3: 1776] 4°: ):(-2):(4 3):(3 A-Fffff4 Ggggg1 *1; 407l.; [22], [1]-760, [32] p., 50 plates (incl. maps).

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [4 pgs], Dedication.; [6 pgs], "Vorrede."; [1], Sectional title page, "Physicalische Reise | durch | verschiedene Provinzen | des | Russischen Reichs | im 1768 und 1769sten Jahren."; [2], Blank.; [3]-452, Text.; 453-504, "Anhang. | Descriptiones fugitiuae animalium atque | plantarum Annis 1768 et 1769 | obseruatorum."; [At end], 25 plates.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank (dated 1770).; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank (dated 1771).; [4 pgs], "Vorrede."-dated 19 April 1772.; [1], Sectional title page, "Physicalische Reise | durch | einige Provinzen | des | Russischen Reichs | im 1770sten Jahr. | [rule] | Zweyter Theil."; [2], Blank.; [3]-770, Text.; 701-744, "Anhang | zum zweyter Theil. | Descriptiones Animalium."; [At end], 34 plates.

[Vol 3] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [20 pgs], "Vorrede."-dated 10 February 1776.; [1], Sectional title page, "Reise | im | ostlichen Sibirien | und bis in | Dauurien. | 1772stes Jahr. | [rule] | Dritter Theil."; [2], Blank.; [3]-690, Text.; 691-760, "Anhang | zum dritten Theil. | Descriptiones Animalium."; | [25 pgs], Indexes.; [1 pg], Errata to part 3.; [6 pgs], Errata to parts 1-2.; [At end], 50 plates.

Very scarce. Pallas was commissioned for a 5 year exploration of southern Russia (1771-6). This important ethnological work describes Pallas' expedition through various provinces of the Russian empire. Descriptions include the people, towns, plants, animals, and mineral resources. The plates show plants, people, animals and maps of the trip.In 1767 Pallas was invited by Catherine II to work at the S:t Petersburg Academy of Sciences.. During his first years (in Russia) he studied nature and the peoples of the.. empire, participating in the Academic expeditions of 1768-1774. His research as leader of the first Orenburg detachment of the expeditions covered both Russia and Asia. Pallas and his companions journeyed from S:t Petersburg to Moscow; crossed the Volga at Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk); and explored the Zhiguli Mountains and the southern Urals, the steppes of western Siberia and the Altay, Lake Baikal, and the mountains of Transbaikalia. The easternmost regions visited were the basins of the Shika and Argun rivers. On his way back to S:t Petersburg, Pallas studied the Caspain depression and the lower reaches of the Volga . (DSB, 10, p. 283).Cox I, p. 199: ""Pallas was one of the savants chosen by the St. Petersburg Academy to carry on the work of examining the resources of the far distant parts of the Russian Empire. He left St. Petersburg in 1768 and spent a full six years investigating various districts of Siberia, the Urals, the Caspian, Tobolsk, Lake Baikal, the Lower Volga, etc. His reports on the geology, fauna, and flora are of great scientific value. "" His journey extended to the frontiers of China. ""Few explorations have been as fruitful as this six years' journey"" (Ency. Brit.).

Facsimile reprint, 1967: Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. Graz, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1967. 3 vols., and atlas (100 plates, 8 fold. maps).

This facsimile reprint contains at the beginning of volume one a life of Pallas and a bibliography of his writings.

Abridged edition, 1987: Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs Peter Simon Pallas... [Herausgabe und Bearbeitung des Textes von Marion Lauch]. Leipzig : P. Reclam, 1987. Series: Reclams Universal-Bibliothek ; Bd. 1182. 8°: 413 p., 38 p. of plates.

Abridged version of the edition published under the same title by the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, 1771-1776. Includes bibliographical references.

Bibliographical references: Berg, Russischen Geographischen Entdeckungen, 1954. BL [984.e.10-12.]. LKG: XIV 750.

2. German, 1776-78 [2nd edition].
Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs in einem ausfuhrlichen Auszuge P.S. Pallas. Frankfurt und Leipzig, Johann Georg Fleischer, 1776-78.

3 vols., 2 [i.e. 3?] leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm. + atlas (76 leaves of plates (copper engravings) : ill. ; 25 x 37 cm.) Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL [1049.b.16-18.].

3. French, 1788-94 [French transl.].
Voyages de M.P.S. Pallas, en differentes provinces de l'empire de Russie, et dans l'Asie septentrionale; traduits de l'Allemand, par M. Gauthier de la Peyronie. Paris, Lagrange/ Maradan, 1788-94.

5 vols. plus atlas. [Vol 1] 4°: [4], xxxii, 773, [3] p; [Vol 2] 4°: [4], 550, [2] p. [Vol 3] 4°: [6], 491, [3] p. [Vol 4] 4°: [6], 722, [2] p. [Vol 5] 4°: [6], 559, [5] p. [Atlas] Large 4°: [4] p., 124 mostly folded engraved plates and maps (printed on 108 leaves) including one double-sheet folding map of Russia. Page size: (Text) 250 x 187 mm. (Atlas) 327 x 234 mm.

Scarce. French translation from the German original (1771-76); the atlas is taken from the enlarged 8vo edition. Pallas' expedition which took him six years to complete, proved to be one of the richest of the whole century regarding scientific results, being considerable importance for the ethnology, geography, linguistics, botany, zoology, and geology of Asia, especially Siberia. More than half the plates show plants; among the maps is the fine large one of the Russian Empire, measuring 57 x 127 cm.This French translation contains, in addition to the narrative, the natural history results of the expedition which were not included in the first German edition.Significant work on RUSSIA at the time of the large Catherine, translated from the German by Gauthier of Peyronie, clerk of the Foreign Affairs. "… VOYAGE undertaken by 7 Russian astronomers and geometricians having for goal the observation of the Venus passage on the solar disc. Catherine II considered it necessary to send with them 5 naturalists capablent to explore a still unknown country. The voyage lasted 6 long years during which, the course of Laïk, the edges of the Caspian Sea, the lake Baïkal to the Chinese border was explored. Forwarding returned overpowered sufferings, continuation of a so painful course. Almost none of his/her companions lived long enough to give him even its relation and it was Pallas which redoubled activity to return this care to their memory by this great work made up according to the manuscripts communicated by the unit of the participants in this exceptional scientific voyage which contains exact observations and facts interesting and curious on the natural History, the Minerals, Botany, physics, Astronomy and all that relates to Manners, the Uses, the habits, the Religions, the languages, the Traditions, the Monuments and Antiquities, etc… " (universal Biography of Michaud. - Quérard, "Literary France" T-vi.569. - Nissen, 3076; To stop from Richarderie, II, 10; Monglond, III, the 166.) Atlas is "QUITE COMPLETE" of its boards as well as very large extendible chart (1,23m X 0,60m) of "the Empire of Russia" which often misses. Uniform binding of the time, full calf for five volumes of text, in half-binding for the Atlas. Back with 5 nerves partitioned and blossomed, nets on the dishes, marbrées.(Quelques sections rednesses in the text.) BEAUTIFUL SPECIMEN.

Bibliographical references: BL [151.d.10-14.]. Cox, Guide to the Literature of Travel, 1948-50: 1, p. 199. LKG: XIV 752b.

4. French, 1793-4 [French transl., 2nd edition].
Voyages du professeur Pallas, dans plusieurs provinces de l'empire de Russie et dans l'Asie septentrionale; Traduits de l'allemand par le C. Gauthier de la Peyronie. Nouvelle Édition, Revue et enrichie de Notes par CC. Lamarck ... et Langlès... Paris, Maradan, 1793-1794.

8 vols. of text and one atlas. With 8 title-pages and 8 half-titles, 108 engraved plates and maps, of which 22 folding and 2 double-page.

Very scarce. Second French edition, enlarged by Lamarck and Langles. Pallas' expedition which took him six years to complete, proved to be one of the richest of the whole century regarding the scientific results, being of considerable importance for the ethnology, geography, linguistics, botany, zoology and geology of Asia, especially of Siberia. More than half of the plates show plants; among the maps is the fine large one of the Russian Empire, measuring 57x127cm.

Bibliographical references: Abbey, Scenery of Great Britain 1770-1860, 1952: 222. BL [T 36508.]. Nissen (ZBI): 3076. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 7224. Wood, Literature of Vertebrate Zoology, 1931: p. 511.

5. French, 1811.
Second voyage de Pallas; ou voyages entrepris dans les gouvernemens meridionaux de l'Empire de Russie, pendant les annees 1793 et 1794. Traduit de l'allemand par Mm. da la Boulaye, et Tonnelier. Paris, Guillaume; [et] Deterville, 1811.

4 v. : illus. ; 22 cm. and atlas (105 plates) 26 x 40 cm.

Very scarce. Natural history-Russia.

Observations, 1777

6. Latin, 1777.
Observations | sur la | Formation Des Montagnes Et Les | Changements Arrivés Au Globe, | Particulierement | À L'Égard De L'Empire Russe; | Lues | à l'Assemblée publique de l'Académie Impériale | des Sciences de Russie | du 23 Juin, 1777. | Que | Monsieur Le Comte | de Gothland | daigna illustrer de sa présence, | par | P.S. Pallas | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornate rule] | A' St. Petersbourg | de l'imprimerie de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences.

4°: [2], [1]-49, [1] p.

Rare. Observations on the formation of mountains around the globe, but with special attention to the Russian Empire.

Another edition, 1779: Observations sur la formation des montagnes, ... St. Pétersbourg, 1779. 12° [BL, 233.c.25.].

Critizicm, 1780: Lettre à M. le Comte de Buffon ... ou, critique et nouvel essai sur la théorie générale de la terre. Avec une notice du dernier discours de M. Pallas ... sur la formation des montagnes, etc. [By P. M. Bertrand.]. Besançon, 1780. 12°. [BL,; authored by Philippe M. Bertrand].

Bibliographical references: BL [B.350.(2.)]. LKG: XIII 129.

7. German, 1778.
Betrachtungen über die Beschaffenheit der Gebürge und Veränderungen der Erdkugel, besonders in Beziehung auf das Russische Reich. Vorgelesen in der öffentlichen Versammlung der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften den 23ten Junius, 1777, ... Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1778.

8°: 112 p. Very scarce.

Facsimile reprint, 1986: Über die Beschaffenheit der Gebirge und die Veränderungen der Erdkugel (1777) von Peter Simon Pallas. Mit Erläuterungen von Folkwart Wendland. Leipzig, Geest & Portig, 1986. 8°: 112 p., illus. [Published as: Ostwalds Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften, Band 269.]

Bibliographical references: BL [T.876.(5.)]. LKG: XIII 130a.

8. German, 1781-96 [Periodical].
Neue Nordische Beitrage zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Okonomie. Herausgegeben von Peter Simon Pallas. St. Petersburg und Leipzig, Bey Johann Zacharias Logan. 1781-1796.

7 vols. [Vol 1: 1781] 8°: [8], 342 p., 4 folded plates, illus., map. [Vol 2: 1781] 8°: [6], 375., 5 folded plates, illus., plan. [Vol 3; 1782] 8°: [2], 409, [1] p., 4 folded plates, illus., 2 maps. [Vol 4: 1783] 8°: [2], 404 p., 3 folded plates, illus., map. [Vol 5: 1793] 8°: [4], 343 p., 5 folded plates, illus., 2 maps. [Vol 6: 1793] 8°: [4], 343 p., 5 folded plates, illus., 2 maps. [Vol 7: 1796] 8°: 447 p., 1 folded plate, illus. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL [Mic.F.232]. LKG: VI 33a.

9. French, 1788 [First edition].
Description physique de la contree de la Tauride, relativement aus trois regnes de la nature : pour servir de suite a l'histoire des decouvertes faites par divers savans voyageurs dans plusieurs contrees de la Russie & de la Perse, &c, publiee en 1779. a Berne & La Haye traduite du russe, et enrichie de notes. La Haye, Chez J. van Cleef, 1788.

8°: *8 A-S8 T5; 153l.; viii, 298 p. Includes bibliographical references.

Very scarce. Translation of: Fizicheskoe opisanie Tavricheskoi oblastipo ee mestopolozheniiu i po vsem trem tsarstvam prirody. "Translated by and sometimes attributed to D.A. Golitsyn"-NLM, 18th cent. Also variously attributed to Karl Ivanovich Gablits (by Svodnyi Katalog russkoi knigi XVIII veka, 1725-1800, 1962-1975. no. 1204) and to Peter Simon Pallas (cf. p. [iii]-viii)

Account of Pallas' Second Expedition

10. German, 1799-1801 [First edition].
Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die sudlichen Statthalterschaften des russischen Reichs in den Jahren 1793 und 1794. Leipzig. 1799-1801.

2 vols. plus atlas. [Vol 1: 1799] 4°: xxxii, 516 p.; [Vol 2: 1801] 4°: xxiv, 525 p. [Atlas] 2°: 55 plates and maps.

Very scarce. Pallas' second trip (1793-4) through the Russian empire, particularly involving the Black Sea and Crimean environs. Catherine gave him property in the Crimea, as a reward for services.

Bibliographical references: Berg, Russischen Geographischen Entdeckungen, 1954. BL [983.d.11.]. LKG: XIV 751a.

11. French, 1799-1801 [French transl.].
Observations faites dans un Voyage entrepris dans les Gouvernements Méridionaux de l'Empire de Russie, dans les années 1793 et 1794. Traduit de l'Allemand. Avec planches enluminées. Leipzig, 1799-1801.

2 vols. 4°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL [794.h.34.]. LKG: XIV 753c.

12. French, 1805-11 [French transl., 2nd edition].
Voyages | Entrepris | Dans Les Gouvernemens | Méridionaux | De L'Empire De Russie, | Dans Les Années 1793 Et 1794, | Par M. le Professeur Pallas. | Traduits De L'Allemand | Par MM. Delaboulaye et Tonnelier, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Gottingue | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Avec illustrés de 28 gravures Hors-texte un Atlas de 55 planches. | Tome Premier. | A Paris, | Chez Deterville, ... | [rule] | M DCCC V.

2 vols. and atlas. [Vol 1] 4°: ?? p. [Vol 2] 4°: ?? p. [Atlas] 4°: Page size: 260 x 210 mm.

Very scarce. LABOULLAYE-MARILLAC. de // TONNELIER. Jacques

Bibliographical references: BL [G.7374-76.].

13. English, 1802-3 [English transl.].
Travels through the southern provinces of the Russian empire, in the years 1793 and 1794. Tr. from the German of P. S. Pallas ... London, Printed by A. Strahan for T.N. Longman & O. Rees ..., 1802-1803.

2 vols. 4 folding maps, 51 engraved and aquatint plates (43 finely hand-coloured), and 28 engraved vignettes in the text (23 finely hand-coloured).

Very scarce. Translated by Francis W. Blagdon of Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs (1799-1801). Handcolored engraved plates and vignettes, mostly by G. Geissler.A magnificent copy of the first English edition of Pallas's 1793-1794 journey through Russia with illustrations in aquatint. Peter Simon Pallas (Berlin 1741-1811) was an eminent botanist, zoologist and geographer, who travelled through southern Russia, the area of the steppes near the Caspian Sea, the northern Caucasus and the Crimea in 1793-94. In his account, which appeared in German in 1799-1801, he desribed the flora and fauna, landscape, geology, local population, and culture.The second volume contains the dedication to Czar Alexander.Cat. Russica P-59.

Bibliographical references: Abbey, Travel in Aquatint 1770-1860, 1956: 222. BL [V 9820.]. Nissen (ZBI): no. 3065. Tooley, English Books, 1973: no. 357.

14. English, 1803 [English transl.].
Travels through the Southern Provinces of the Russian Empire performed in the years 1793 and 1794 by P.S. Pallas, Councillor of State to the Emperor ... Translated from the German without abridgement, by Francis Blagdon. London, 1803.

4 vols. [Vol 1] xxiv, 336 p. [Vol 2] ix, 368 p. [Vol 3] xv, 362 p. [Vol 4] xix, 352 p., plates.

Very scarce. In. Blagdon (F. W.) Modern Discoveries, etc. vol. 5-8. 1802, etc. 16°.

Bibliographical references: BL [1424.b.25-28.].

15. English, 1812 [English transl.].
Travels through the southern provinces of the Russian Empire, in the years 1793 and 1794 translated from the German of P.S. Pallas. Second edition. London, Printed for John Stockdale, 1812.

2 vols. 8°:

Scarce. Translation of: Bemerkungen auf einer reise in die sudlichen statthalterschaften des Russischen reichs in den jahren 1793 und 1794 (1799-1801).

Reprint editions: New York, Arno; New York Times, 1970.

Bibliographical references: BL [10290.g.14.].

Tableau de Tauride

16. Russian, 1795 [First edition].
Kratkoe fizicheskoe i topograficheskoe opisanie Tavricheskoi oblasti sochinennoe na Frantsuzskom iazykie Petrom Pallasom, Statskim Sovietnikom, Akademii Nauk chlenom, Ordena Sv: Vladimira Kavalerom, i perevedennoe Ivanom Rizhskim. Sanktpeterburg : pechatano v Imperatorskoi Tipografii, 1795.

72 p.

Very scarce. Tables on the physical and topographical aspects of the province of Tauride, extracted as a separate publication from the Pallas's Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die sudlichen Statthalterschaften des russischen Reichs (1799-1802).

Bibliographical references: Svodnyi Katalog Russkoi Knigi: no. 5112.

17. Latin, 1795 [French transl.].
Tableau physique et topographique de la Tauride, tiré du journal d'un voyage fait en 1794 par P.S. Pallas ... St. Petersbourg, 1795.

8°: 148 p. Very scarce.

Other edition: Nouv. ed. Leipz.: 1806.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.303.(3.)]. LKG: XIV 754d.

18. German, 1796 [German transl.].
Physikalisch - topographisches Gemalde von Taurien. Ein Auszug aus dem Tagebuche der vom Verf. im J. 1794 gemachten Reise. Neue Ausgabe. Leipzig, 1806.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 755e.