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MARBODE, Bishop of Rennes.

(1035 – 1123)

(Born: Angers, France, 1035; Died: Angers, France, 11 September 1123) French theologian, eclesiastical writer & hymnologist.

Marbode, whose true name was "de Marboeuf," received his early education at Angers. After teaching some time at the cathedral school of Angers, he was put at the head of the educational system of the city and Diocese of Anvers in 1067. Later he became archdeacon and in 1096 Urban II appointed him Bishop of Rennes. In his youth he indulged in many excesses, but from the time he became bishop his life was without reproach. In 1104 he was present at the Council of Tours, and in 1109 he was made administrator of the Diocese of Angers. At the age of eighty-eight he resigned his diocese and withdrew to the Benedictine monastery of St. Aubin at Angers where he died soon after.

Biographical references: ABF: I 700, 163-166. Ernault, Marbode, eveque de Rennes, sa vie et ses ouvrages. Rennes, 1890. Feller, Biographie Universelle, 1851. Ferry, C., De Marbodi rhedonensis epicopi vita et carminibus, Nemausi, 1877. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 2, cols. 39-40. WBI.

Libellvs de Lapidibvs, 1511

1. Latin, 1511 [First edition].
Libellvs De Lapidibvs | Preciosis Nvper | Editvs. | Cuspinianus Lectori.

4°: a6 b-c4 d8 (d8 blank); 22l.; no pagination or foliation. Caption title (a4r): Enchiridion Marbodei Galli de lapidibus preciosis. Initial space, with guide letter. Includes index.

Edition princeps. Very rare. Prepared by Joannes Cuspinianus [see note below]. Marbode's verse treatise on the virtues of stones was one of the most popular lapidaries through the 16th century. It is generally considered a medical treatise as most of the verses pertian to the medical virtues of the stones listed.The most famous didactic poem by the Latin poet Marbodius and the first to be edited by Pictorius. Written in hexameters, it describes as many as 60 precious stones with their peculiar virtues, both natural and magic. This Freiburg edition was the model for another edition produced in Paris the same year.In the historians' task to determine the origins of the Scientific Revolution, some few have looked no further back than the nineteenth century while most have concentrated instead on the drama of the Copernican Revolution. The search seldom delves back to the allegedly superstitious middle ages except as a contrast to the rational, modern scientific age or the scientific-becoming age. In his monumental Etudes sur Leonard de Vince (Paris, 1906-13) and other works, Pierre Duhem did much to persuade historians to look still further back in time; but his effort' was a pioneer work in the search for the antecedents to sixteenth century science. Lynn Thorndike (History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 vols. [New York, 1923-58]) contributed heavily to a search for the medieval origins of science but his effort was so tremendous, so detailed, that he never synthesized the meaning.As early as the eleventh century some medievalists see a changing world-outlook - a phrase used by Jacob Burckhardt to describe the Italian Renaissance. Some few believe that science was a gradual process, stimulated by economic revival and a new attitude toward manual work, of separating the supernatural from the natural and of believing that knowledge was power. In this context Marbode of Rennes' De lapidibus ("On stones") is studied. There is a new spirit in his work, not seen in earlier lapidaries, which emphasizes that the knowledge of stones is useful and a means of power for men. Marbode's lapidary then becomes the model for numerous subsequent treatises. More important, the utility of the stone-lore, however magical some of it may seem to moderns, was a constant theme. This trend toward practicality makes a study of De lapidibus a revealing insight into the formulation period of the `Renaissance of the Twelfth Century'.Riddle in a compliation of manuscript lapidaires : A total of 616 lapidary manuscripts, mostly in Latin, were noted and of these 125 were Marbode's De lapidibus in Latin.' At once, this makes lapidaries one of the more popular, if not the most popular, types of medieval scientific literature. By far Marbode's treatise was the greatest "best-seller" for many centuries in its category. In addition to the Latin text, there are also numerous vernacular translations. Little studied by historians of science, the lapidaries are regarded as little more than superstition. Linguists have paid some attention to lapidaries because some translations of Marbode's poem were among the earliest examples of vernacular dialects.' But why this immense and extraordinary popularity? That is the question which led me to study Marbode.A probable answer to the question of Marbode's popularity was that his work was employed as a practical guide to medicine. Its study reveals a glimpse of how medicine was actually being practiced. Marbode's in-tention in writing was, as he tells us in his Prologue, to reveal the secrets concerning stones. He says that King Evax of Arabia sent information about the stones to the Emperor Tiberius (14 A.D.-37). There is a danger, he feared, that the mysterious powers would be diminished by vulgari-zation, but, nonetheless, he feels compelled to pass them on to his priv-ileged readers. His concern is with the stones' descriptions, locations and powers, specifically mentioning the `art of medicine'. Marbode's modern reader may feel less privileged in knowing the secrets and more disturbed that the age so ascribed to inanimate objects such miraculous qualities admixed with glimpses of `enlightened' pharmacy. Doubtlessly Marbode would be equally disturbed by modern man's reaction. Life has individu-ality, he might argue, in man, beast, herb and stone. Each stone's character, its life as it were, can be known by God's grace. God has given each its own special powers. Important to the understanding of the origins of modern science is noting that a new attitude of how to `use' knowledge was developing. There was a new critical judgment which led to Bacon's proposition that knowledge is power. Antiquity and the early middle ages were not concerned with a quantitative analysis of a mineral's components. Indeed, there was no recognizable definition of what constituted a mineral. The explanation sought of a mineral or stone was: "What is its virtus?" Only indirectly related is the matter of its physical composition, as Diet-linde Goltz recently observed in her general study of pre-modern mineral nomenclatures Constantly Marbode tells his readers that the stones are power-laden and this power is to be exploited by men, who know the secrets. Perhaps beginnning with Marbode, the late medieval lapidarists placed an emphasis on the mystical and practical virtues of each stone which starts a line of development from his De lapidibus to Albert the Great's De mineralibus and to Georg Agricola's De re metallica. The emphasis on the use of stones is a new development of the late eleventh century - although Marbode certainly took his information from ancient sources.'In general, there are three types of lapidary literature. The scientific lapidary was derived from such writers as Theophrastos, Dioscorides, Damigeron and Galen. Secondly, the magical or astrological lapidary, traced by some authors to Alexandrian writings, did not enjoy the pop-ularity of the first category. Finally, the Christian lapidary or Christian symbolic lapidary was an ever popular from, especially in the early middle ages.' The Christian symbolic lapidaries describe the twelve stones men-tioned for Aaron's breastplate in Exodus or in the Apocalyptic literature." Although formulated by such scholars as Joan Evans and George Sarton,7 these three categories are handy for casual classification; but they are not mutually exclusive, and in fact often overlap. In this light, Marbode's De lapidibus should be regarded as an example of the scientific variety; however, Marbode would probably neither understand nor have any patience with such sophistic categories, since most lapidarists drew on all knowledge about stones and were not so restricted as to form. Marbode, in fact, wrote three smaller lapidaries which are not so readily classified.All three discuss the twelve Christian stones which would seemingly make them a member of the third category. Marbode's first small lapidary in verse would routinely be of the Christian symbolic, as well as the third lapidary whose content is also mostly Christian symbolism. The middle one, however, discusses the medical uses of the twelve Christian stones, thus making it possible also to classify it as a scientific lapidary. Thus, even these three small Marbodean lapidaries defy the categorical classi-fication system.

Critical editions & translations, English, 1977: Riddle, John M., Marbode of Rennes' De lapidibus considered as a medical treatise with text, commentary, and C. W. King's translation, together with text and translation of Marbode's minor works on stones. Wiesbaden, Steiner, 1977. xii, 144 p. [Published as: Sudhoffs Archiv, Beihefte, Heft 20; ISBN: 3515026223.; review, Speculum, 57 (1982), 914, by H. Bloch.]

Riddle provides here a translation of De lapidibus, along with three minor works on stones by Marbode, with the Latin facing the English translation. There is a thorough discussion of Marbode's source material and a superb commentary regarding each specific stone.

German, 1983: W. Wiemann, Cuspinians Kommentar des liber lapidum Marbods. Kritischer Text und deutsche Übersetzung von Cod. 5195 (sowie der editio princeps von 1511). Dissertation Heidelberg (1983). 28, 467 p., chart. [A dissertation consisting of a critical text of Cuspinian's commentary and German translation of the manuscript that was used to prepare the 1511 edition.]

Johannes Cuspinianus. (Born: Schweinfurth, Germany, December 1473; Died: Vienna, Austria, 19 April 1529) German poet & philosopher. Cuspinianus, Johannes (actually J. Spiessheimer), * at the end of of December 1473 Schweinfurth (Germany)? 19. 4. 1529 Vienna, Humanist, Arzt, Diplomat, Historiker, Dichter. Came to studies into Leipzig and peppering castle 1492 to Vienna, where Maximilian I. 1493 crowned it to the poet. As studying at the university and a teacher at the citizen school to pc. Stephan he came with the Humanisten into contact, became 1499 Dr. of the medicine and the professor at the university. After the death of K. Celtis 1508 professor of the dichtkunst, was considered as most important Humanist Vienna. Since 1510 several times envoy (Orator) of the yard in Hungary and Poland, accomplished the Viennese to Cuspinianus prince day of 1515; afterwards city counsel of Vienna. Cuspinianus rendered large services as discoverer and an editor of classical and medieval historical sources (chronicle of Otto of freesing). Its 1527/28 "Austria begun" is particularly important, critical historical-geographical regional studies of Lower Austria, which remained however fragment. Its grave is in the Viennese step Hans cathedral.Literature: H. Ankwicz Ankwicz-Kleehoven, the Viennese Humanist J.Cuspinianus, 1959.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Birth and Development, 1938: pp. 142-55. BL [no copy listed]. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201167]. Sarton, Introduction, 1928-52: 1, 764-5. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4168. Thorndike, History of Magic, 1923-58: 1, 775. (Cuspinianus) Ankwicz-Kleehoven, H., Johann Cuspinians briefwechsel, gesammelt. München, Beck, 1933. xviii, 239 p. [Published as: Veröffentlichungen der Kommission zur erforschung der geschichte der reformation und gegenreformation Humanistenbriefe, Band 2]. Ankwicz-Kleehoven, H., Der Wiener Humanist Johannes Cuspinian, Gelehrter und Diplomat zur Zeit Kaiser Maximilians I. Graz, H. Böhlaus Nachf., 1959. xi, 344 p., illus., plates, ports., map, facsims. [Bibliography, p. [vii]-viii, "Die Werke Cuspinians"].

Incipt Liber Marbodi, 1524

2. Latin, 1524 [Collected works].
[Dark C] Incipt Liber Marbodi quondam nominatissimi | presulis Redonēsis qui obiit seu verius per obitum cla | ruit ... correctus per magistrum | Radulphum Besiel... [Redonis, per Johannem Baudouyn 1524].

4°: A-F4; 24l.; no pagination.

Extremely rare. His works were first published at Rennes in 1524. A new and enlarged edition was published by Beaugendre (Paris, 1708), reprinted in P.L. They comprise many lives of saints, various epistles and some elegently written hymns.

Bibliographical references: CBN: 105, col. 781 [Yc.1533]. NUC [no copy listed]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4169.

3. Latin, 1531.
Marbo= | Dei Galli Poetae Ve= | tustissimi de lapidibus pretiosis Encheri= | dion, cum scholijs Pictorij Vil= | lingensis. | Eivsdem Pictorii De | lapide molari carmen. | Lectori. | Qui cupis emunctim gemmarum scire medullas, | Huc uenias, totum continet iste liber: | Qui decies senis capitellis nomina dicit, | Et species, patrias, quid ualeant{\'qz} simul. | Anno M. D. | XXXI.

8°: A-G8; 56l.; no pagination. No publisher on title page, but attributed to Freiburg in Breisgau. Page size: 146 x 100 mm. Rare.

Contents: A1r, Title page.; A1v-A2r, "D. Vdalrico Vvirtner."; A2v-A3r, "Pictorivs Lectori Can= | dido S.D."; A3v-G6r, "Enchiridi= | on Marbodei Galli De | lapidibus pretiosis." [=text].; G6v-G7r, "Qverela Qvod Inter | lapides pretiosos molaris lapis tacetur."; G7v-G8r, "Gemmarvm Index."; G8v, Blank.

Georg Pictorius. (Born: Villingen near the Donau, Schwarzwald, Gemany, c1500; Died: 1569) German physician. Pictorius was first a school master in Freiburg in Breisgau, later he studied medicine, and soon thereafter was promoted to Professor. He edited many works of medical and scientific value.

Bibliographical references: BL [11388.a.18.]. Brunet: 3, 1392. CBN: 105, col. 781 [S.21764]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 374. LKG: XVI 189. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201163]. Raby, F.J.E., A history of secular Latin poetry in the Middle Ages. Second edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, [1957]. 2 vols: 1, 331. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4170. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1496. (Pictorius) ABF: I 834, 3-6; II 518, 243. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8: 4, 564. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. WBI.

4. Latin, 1531.
Marbo: | Dei Galli Poetas Ve | tustißimi de lapidibus preaosis | Enchiridon, cū scholijs | Pictorij Villin= | gensis. | Eivsdem Pictorii De | lapide molari carmen. | [ornament] | Parisiis | Excudebat Christianus Wechelus, sub scuto | Basilaensi, in uico Iacobæo, anno | 1531.

8°: A-G8; 56l.; [1]-110, [2] p. Ornamental initials. Woodcut device on title page and on last leaf. Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [977.a.11.]. CBN: 105, col. 781 [S.21780]. NUC [no copy listed]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4171.

De Gemmarum Lapidumq, 1539

5. Latin, 1539.
Marbodaei | Galli Caenomanensis De | gemmarum lapidumqz pretiosorum formis, natu | ris, atzuiribus eruditū cū primis opusculū, sane qutile, cum | ad rei medicæ, tū scripturæ cognitionē:nūc primū nō | mō cētū ferme uersib. locupletatū pariter & accuratius emē= | datū, sed & scholijs qqz illustratū P Alardū Æmstelredamū | [...8 lines of Latin and Greek text surrounding a woodcut figure representing Aaron and the 12 stones of the biblical breast shield...] | Colonæ excudebat Hero Alopecius. Anno. 1539.

8°: A-Q8; 126l.; [1]-124, [2]l. Numbered in folio on the recto side only. Woodcut decoration on the title page. Page size: 150 x 98 mm.

Contents: A1r, Title page.; A1v-A2r, "Autores."; A2r-A4r, "[Dark C] Hieronymus ad Fabiolam de | uestitu sacerdotum."; A4r-A6r, "[ornament] Reveren | Dissimo In Christo"-dated 1539.; A6r-A8v, "Aladvæmstelre | damus Lectori."; A8v-??r, "[ornament] Marbo= [reverse [ornament]] | Dæi Galli Cænomanensis."; ??v-Q6r, "[ornament] Praeci= [reverse [ornament]] | Pvæ Lapidvm Preciosorvm."; Q6v-Q7v, Index.; Q8r, "Errata."; Q8v, Blank.

Very rare. Edited by Alaard (of Amsterdam) [see note below] and published by Hero Fuchs [=Alopecius]. Alaard had a much more complete and correct manuscript that did Pictorius so that this edition contains 100 more verses of the original poem. He also added the variants of the text, extracts from the works of Plinius, Dioscorides, Galen, Philo, Hegesippus, Origenes, St. Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostomos, Marsilio Ficino, Ermolao Barbaro, as well as Pictorius' annotations and his own scholia, which he titled "Praecipuæ Gemmarum Lapidumque Pretiosorm Explicationes."

Beginning on folio 76, in the section titled, "Marbodaei sive potius incerti auctoris versus aliquot hactenus desiderati," Alaard has included 93 other verses describing 16 precious stones not included in the original poem of Marbodaeus. These describe: capnites, ophthalmius, obsianus, ignites, diadochos, exebenus, lingurus, daphnius, mennonius, galactites, odontes, lapis qui fronte nascitur asini, trisutes, phrygius, sarcophagus, and specularis lapis. These verses have been included (with his variants of reading) in several subsequent editions of the work. His dedictatory letter and his preface to the reader were reprinted in the critical edition of Marbodus edited by Beckmann (Göttingen, 1799; see entry below), where his variants and some of his annotations are also to be found. Alaard dedicated this edition to Georg of Egmont (=Haecmondensis), Bishop of Utrecht [d. 1559], to whom he gladly offers this work of Marbodus, which he calls "octavum orbis miraculum."

Alaard of Amsterdam. (Born: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1491; Died: Louvain, France, 1544) Dutch theologian & poet. Alaard first studied at Köln, later at Louvain, where he was interested in theology, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. In 1520, he became an instructor at Louvain, where he held lectures on the grammer of Erasmus. Most of his many writings are theological in nature, but he was also the editor, commentator and translator of works by Baerland, Budé, Hippocrates, Huisman (Agricola), Marbode, and Theophylactos, and thus played an important role in the scientific literature of the 16th century.

Bibliographical references: BL [987.b.28.]. CBN: 105, cols. 781-2 [S.20382]. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 2, 73-5. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 375. Hoover Collection: no. 558. Mayer, Biobibliography of Medical Authors, 1941: no. 289.1. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201158]. Osler, Bibliotheca Osleriana, 1969: no. 5126. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4173. (Alaard of Amsterdam) Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek, 1852-78. BAB: 9, 271-315. Biografisch Woordenboek Nederland: 1, ??. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Kobus, Biographisch Woordenboek, 1886. Mayer, Biobibliography of Medical Authors, 1941: 48, portrait. WBI.

6. Latin, 1540.
IN: Floridus Macer, [fl. 12th cent.] Macri De materia medica lib. V. versibvs conscripti per Ianum Cornarium medicum physicum enendati ac annotati, & nunquam antea ex toto editi ; contenta singvlis libris I. & II. De herbis ac plantis uulgarib, III. De plantis peregrinis, IIII. De quibusdam plantis, item[que] animaliu partibus, ac terræ speciebus, V. De lapidibus ac gemmis. Franc[ofurti] : Chr. Ege[nolphus] 1540.

8°: [12], 132l. Includes indexes. Colophon: Franc. Chr. Egen., M.D.X.L. Book 4 is spurious; book 5 is by Marbode, Bishop of Rennes-Choulant, Handbuch der Bücherkunde f.d. Ätere Med., 2. Aufl., 1841, p. 242.

Very scarce. Macer, Floridus, fl. 12th cent. Title Macri De materia medica lib. V. microform / versibvs conscripti per Ianum Cornarium medicum physicum enendati ac annotati, & nunquam antea ex toto editi ; contenta singvlis libris I. & II. De herbis ac plantis uulgarib, III. De plantis peregrinis, IIII. De quibusdam plantis, item[que] animaliu partibus, ac terræ speciebus, V. De lapidibus ac gemmis. Publisher Franc[ofurti] : Chr. Ege[nolphus] 1540. Description [12], 132 leaves ; 16 cm. Note Book 4 is spurious; book 5 is by Marbode, Bishop of Rennes-Choulant, Handbuch der Bücherkunde f.d. Ätere Med., 2. Aufl., 1841, p. 242. Includes indexes. Colophon: Franc. Chr. Egen., M.D.X.L. Continued by: Landmarks II. Language Latin Subject Materia medica - Early works to 1800.

Bibliographical references: NUC. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4174.

7. Latin, 1555.
Marbo= | Dei Galli Poe= | Tae Vetvstissimi | Dactylotheca, scholijs Georgij Pictorij | Villingani doctoris Medici, & Regiæ cu= | riæ Ensishemij superioris Alsatiæ | Archiatri, nuncaltera uice, supra | priorem æditionem, | illustrata. | Item de lapide Mo- | lari, & de Cote carmen Panegy= | ricum, eodem autore Geor= | gio Pictorio. | Basileæ.

8°: *8 A-E8; 48l.; [16], [1]-80 p. Ornamental initials. Colophon: "Basiliæ | Per Henrichvm Petri, | Mense Martio, | An. M.D.LV."

Rare. Based on Pictori's text.

Bibliographical references: BL [977.a.12.]. CBN: 105, col. 780-1 [S.20384]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 376. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201157]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4176.

8. Latin, 1574.
De Gemmis | Scriptvm Evacis | Regis Arabvm | Olim A Poeta | Qvodam Non Infœ= | liciter Carmine Redditvm, | & nunc primum in lucem | editum. | Opera & studio D. Hen= | rici Rantzovii Serenissimi Danorum | Regis per Holsatium & Dietmar= | sium legati. | [ornament] | Vvitebergæ | Excvdebat Lav= | rentius Schwenck, | M.D. LXXIIII.

8°: A-C8 D3; 27l.; no pagination.

Very rare. The first appearance of Marbode's work under the authorship of the legendary Arabian King Evax, and which is where this title is sometimes bibliographically listed.

Bibliographical references: NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201159]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4177. Thorndike, History of Magic, 1923-58: 1, p. 776.

9. Latin, 1575 [Another edition].
Marbodei, Galli poetae vetustissimi de lapidibus preciosis enchiridion cum scholiis Pictorii. Eiusdem Pictorii de lapide molari carmen. In, Evax, King of Arabia. De Gemmis Scriptum, etc. 1575.

8°: Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [11388.a.14.]. NUC [under Evax??]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4178.

10. Latin, 1585 [Another edition].
Marbodei, Galli poetae vetustissimi de lapidibus preciosis enchiridion cum scholiis Pictorii. Eiusdem Pictorii de lapide molari carmen. ... 1585.

4°: A-K4; 40l.; no pagination. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [458.a.30.]. CBN: 105, col. 782 [S.5236]. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201160]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993 [no copy listed].

11. Latin, 1695 [Another edition].
Marbodei, Galli poetae vetustissimi de lapidibus preciosis enchiridion cu  scholiis Pictorii. Eiusdem Pictorii de lapide molari carmen. Notes: In. Gorlæus (A.) A. Gorlæi Dactyliothecæ pars prima(-secunda, etc.). 1695.

4°: Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [140.a.1.]. CBN: 105, col. 780 [J.5110]. NUC [Under Golaeus, Abraham]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4180.

12. Latin, 1740 [Another edition].
Marbodei Galli | Poetæ Vetustissimi, | De | Lapidibvs | Pretiosis | Enchiridion, | Cvm Scholiis Pictorii Villinglusis. | Ejvsdem Pictorii | De | Lapide Molari Carmen. | Lectori. | Qui cupis emunctim gemmarum scire medullas, | Huc benias, totum continet iste liber: | Qui decies senis capitellis nomina dicit, | Et species, patrias, quid valeantque simul. | Anno MDXXXI. | [rule] | Ex | Bibliotheca Brvckmanniana | Recvs. | Wolffenbuttelæ Anno MDCCXXXX.

4°: a-k4 l2; 42l.; [1]-82, [2] p.

Rare. This is apparently a reprinting of the 1531 text, with minor editing by Franz Ernst Brückmann.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.388.(2.)]. CBN: 105, col. 781 [Yc.1514]. NUC: 360, 495-6 [NM 0201164]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4183.

13. Latin, 1799.
Marbodi | Liber Lapidvm | Sev | De Gemmis | Varietate Lectionis | Et | Perpetva Annotatione | Illvstratvs | A | Iohanne Beckmanno. | [tapered rule] | Additis Observationibvs | Pictorii, Alardi, Cornarii. | [tapered rule] | Svbiectis Svb Finem Annotationibvs | Ad | Aristotelis | Avscvltationes Mirabiles | Et Ad | Antigoni Carystii | Historias Mirabiles. | [ornate rule] | Gottingae | Typis Ioann. Christian. Dieterich. | 1799.

8°: a8 b6 A-K8 L2; 91l.; [i]-xxviii, [1]-164 p. Page size: 212 x 120 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-vi, "Esti Marbodi, episcopi Redonensis, ..."-dated 4 August 1798.; [vii]-xvi, "Beaugendre | In Praemonitione ad Marbodi Opervm | Editionem pag. 1382."; [xvii]-xxvii, "Dedicationes | Et | Praefationes."; xxviii, "Compendia Nomivm."; [1]-96, Text.; [97], Sectional title page, "Interpretatio | Gallica."; [98], Blank.; [99]-147, Text.; 148-153, "Novae Annotationes | Ad | Aristotelis Librvm | De Mirabilibvs Avscvlationibvs."; 154-164, "Annotationes | Ad | Antigoni Carystii | Historias Mirabiles."

Scarce. Edited by Johann Beckmann [see note below]. Regarded as the most authoritative and useful early edition because of the inclusion of notes and citations from previous editions, including those of Pictorius and Alaard.

Johann Beckmann. (Born: Hoya near the Weser, Germany, 4 June 1739; Died: Göttingen, Germany, 3 February 1811) German biologist. Beckmann studied at Göttingen from 1758 to 1762. He then taught at the German Gymnasium in St. Petersburg from 1765-6. After an extensive trip through Sweden and Denmark, Beckmann secured a position at the University of Göttingen, where he remained. He was a member of the Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften [Society of Science] in Göttingen 1776, Leopoldina 1761, and Baryerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1809.

Bibliographical references: BL [564.b.13.]. CBN: 105, col. 782 [S.20407]. LKG: XVI 190. NUC: 360, 495-6 [0201168]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 4184. (Beckmann) ADB: 2, 238-9. Beckert, M., Johann Beckmann, Leipzig, 1983. [Published as: Biographien hervorragender Naturwissenschaftler, Techniker und Mediziner, 68; 119 p., portrait]. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 165 [3 portraits listed]. DSB: 1, 554-5. Mayerhöfer, Lexikon der Naturwissenschaften, 1958-75: 403. NDB: 1, 727-8. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 127-8. Wagenitz, Göttinger Biologen, 1988: 22-3. Zischka, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1961: 63.

14. Danish, 1908-20 [Danish transl.].
Gamle danske urtebøger, stenbøger og kogebøger Harpestræng udgivne for Universitets-Jubilæts danske Samfund ved Marius Kristensen. København, H.H. Thieles bogtrykkeri, 1908-1920.

8°: cii, 326 p., facsims.

Scarce. Translation by Marius Kristensen [1869-1941] of Marbode's work. It was originally issued in 7 parts as Skrifter Nr. 182, 192, 200, 215, 226, 236, and 253 of Universitets-Jubilæts danske Samfund. "Macer er aldeles afgjort kilden til det meste i Harpestrængs urtebøger."-p. xviii.; "Stenbogen er altså udarbejdet på grundlag af Marbods digt, men dærefter er der foretaget indskud efter Arnolds stenbog."-p. lviii. Included are bibliographical references and indices.