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KRAUS, Edward Henry.

(1875 – 1973)

(Born: 1 December 1875; Died: 3 February 1973) American mineralogist & crystallographer.

Kraus was a professor at Syracuse University, New York (1901-1902) and the University of Michigan (1904-45). He was a pioneer in the study of variations in the hardness of diamond. He also wrote on the occurances of minerals, crystallographic forms and apparatus.

Biographical references: ABA: I 920, 208-210. American Mineralogist: 59 (1974), nos. 3-4, 402-4, portrait. American Mineralogist: 40 (1955), nos. 11-12, 945-51, portrait. Fortschrifter Mineralogie: 51 (1973), no. 4, 1-2, portait. Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1485. WBI.

1. English, 1906 [First edition].
Essentials | -Of- | Crystallography | By | Edward Henry Kraus, Ph.D. | Junior Professor of Mineralogy in the | University of Michigan | [ornament] | With 427 Figures | [rule] | George Wahr, Publisher | Ann Arbor, Mich. | 1906.

8°: [i]-x, [1]-162 p., 427 illus. Pages 150 to 156 are double-page tables showing the elements of symmetry for the 32 crystal classes. Page size: 218 x 142 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso "Copyright, 1906 | ..."; iii, "Preface."-signed Edward H. Kraus, June 1906.; [iv], Blank.; v-vii, "Table of Contents."; [viii], Blank.; [Errata slip tipped in.]; ix-x, "Bibliography."; [1]-149, Text.; 150-156 (double-page tables), "Tabular Classification | Showing The Elements Of Symmetry | And The Simple Forms | Of The Thirty-Two Classes Of Crystals."; 157-162, "Index."

Scarce. This text is designed for the beginner and is aimed to present the essential factors of geometrical crystallography, from the standpoint of symmetry. Each of the thirty-two possible classes of symmetry are described, even though several of the classes have never been observed in the mineral kingdom. No treatment on the projection or measurement of crystals is given, and no theories of structural crystallography are provided. However, the text is heavily illustrated to enforce points described in the text. Overall this is one of the best beginner texts ever published in crystallography.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 75. USGS Library Catalog.

Descriptive Mineralogy, 1911

2. English, 1911 [First Edition].
Descriptive Mineralogy | With Especial Reference To The | Occurences And Uses Of Minerals | By | Edward Henry Kraus, Ph.D. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | George Wahr, Publisher | Ann Arbor, Mich. | 1911.

8°: [i]-viii, [1]-334 p., illus. Page size: 218 x 142 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso "Copyright, 1907."; iii, "Preface."; [iv], Blank.; [v], "Table Of Contents."; [vi], Blank.; vii-viii, "Bibliography."; 1-318, Text.; 319-334, "Index."

Very scarce. This textbook was designed by Kraus to help students who were taking his course in descriptive mineralogy at the University of Michigan. It is written in a simple language so that even a beginner could master the discipline.

Sections: Preface. Bibliography. Introduction. Elements. Sulphides and analogous selenium, tellurium, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth compounds. Oxides, hydroxides, and oxysulphides. Haloids. Nitrates, carbonates, manganites, and plumbites. Sulphates, chromates, molybdates, tungstates, and uranates Aluminates, ferrites, borates, and so forth. Phosphates, arsenates, antimonates, vanadates, niobates, and tantalates. Silicates, including titanates, zirconates, and thorates. Organic compounds. Classification of minerals according to elements. Index.

Bibliographical references: NUC. USGS Library Catalog.

3. English, 1911 [First edition].
Tables for the Determination of Minerals by Means of their Physical Properties, Occurences and Associates. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1911.

8°: vii, 254 p.

Very scarce. An uncommon reference for practical mineralogy, being an excellent identification book. Consists almost entirely of tables arranged according to the most easily distinguished physical characteristics, such as luster, color, hardness, etc.

A second, revised and enlarged edition appeared in 1930.

Bibliographical references: NUC. USGS Library Catalog.

4. English, 1920 [First edition].
Mineralogy | An Introduction To The Study | Of | Minerals And Crystals | By | Edward Henry Kraus, Ph.D., Sc.D. | [...2 lines of memberships and titles...] | And | Walter Fred Hunt, Ph.D. | Professor Of Petrology, University Of Michigan | First Edition | First Impression | McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. | New York: 370 Seventh Avenue | London: 6 & S Bouverie St., E.C. 4 | 1920.

8°: [i]-xiv, 1-561, [1] p., 696 illus. Page size: 228 x 146 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "Mineralogy | An Introduction To The Study Of | Minerals And Crystals," verso blank.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Copyright, 1920, ..."; v, "Preface."-dated August 1920.; [vi], Blank.; vii, "Contents."; [viii], Blank.; ix-xiv, "Introduction."; 1-365, Text.; 366-371, "Glossary."; 372-378, "Tabular Classification Showing the Elements of Symmetry..."; 379-547, "Tables For The Determination Of The 160 Minerals | Described In This Text By Means Of Their | Physical Properties, Occurences, | And Associates."; [548], Blank.; 549-561, "Index."; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. An excellent and popular textbook of mineralogical science that includes nuggets of historical perspective. Illustrations, particularly in the crystallography section show line drawings and photographic reproductions of wooden crystal models to depict the various crystal forms. A flaw in the text is the nonexistence of any bibliography or citation to older literature, which distinguished the textbook of Edward Dana.

One of the best textbooks in English. Treats crystallography, properties, polarizing microscope techniques, genesis, blowpiping, descriptions, precious stones, glossary, etc. Tables for the determination of 150 minerals by physical properties, occurrences and associated minerals.

Sections: Introduction (p. ix). I. Crystallography (p. 1). II. Cubic System (p. 14). III. Hexagonal System (p. 30). IV. Tetragonal System (p. 55). V. Orthorhombic System (p. 65). VI. Monoclinic System (p. 72). VII. Triclinic System (p. 78). VIII. Compound Crystals (p. 82). IX. Physical Properties (p. 88). X. The Polarizing Microscope (p. 99). XI. Chemical Properties (p. 125). XII. Formation and Occurrence of Minerals (p. 131). XIII. Qualitative Blowpipe Methods (p. 145). XIV. Descriptive Mineralogy (p. 186). 1. Elements.). 2. Sulphides, Arsenides, and Sulpho-minerals.). 3. Oxides and Hydroxides.). 4. Haloids.). 5. Nitrates, Carbonates, and Manganites.). 6. Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates, Tungstates, and Uranates.). 7. Aluminates, Ferrites, and Borates.). 8. Phosphates, Columbates, and Vanadates.). 9. Silicates and Titanates.). XV. Gems and Precious Stones (p. 329). XVI. Classification of Minerals According to Elements (p. 339). Glossary (p. 366). Tabular Classification of the Thirty-two Classes of Symmetry (p. 372). Tables for the Determination of Minerals (p. 379). Index (p. 549).

Other editions: 2nd edition, 1928. ix, 604 p., 766 illus. 3rd edition, 1936. ix, 638 p., 812 illus. 4th edition, 1951. ix, 644 p., 735 illus.

Bibliographical references: NUC. USGS Library Catalog.