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KIRCHER, Athanasius.

(1601 – 1680)

(Born: Geisa a. d. Ulster, Germany, 2 May 1601; Died: Rome, Italy, 30 October 1680) German polymath.

Kircher was the youngest of six sons, whose father held a doctorate degree in theology. Kircher was provided an education in various Jesuit institutions, receiving a good classical education. In 1616 he elected to enter the Jesuit Order and in 1628 he was ordained a priest. Kircher was a polymath with interests in cartography, exploration, natural sciences, mathematics, natural philosophy, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Syriac and oriental languages. In 1633, he answered a call to Rome by Pope Urban VIII and was appointed professor of mathematics, physics, and oriental languages at the Collegio Romano. He resigned in 1641 to pursue independent studies, however. Kircher was a voluminous author writing on a wide variety of subjects that interested him.

Biographical references: ADB. Brischar, K., "P. Athanasius Kircher, ein Lebensbild", Katholische Studien, 3, (1877), no. 5. DBA: I 650, 307-328; II 705, 255-275. DSB. Eitner, Quellenlexikon, 1959. Fletcher, J., "Astronomy in the Life and Correspondence of Athanasius Kircher", Isis, 61 (1970), 52-67. Gerber, Historisch-biographisches Lexikon, 1812-4. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. NDB: 11, 641b-5a [by F. Krafft]. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1258-9. WBI.

1. Latin, 1657.
Athanasii Kircheri | E Soc. Iesv | Iter Extaticvm II. | Qui & Mundi Subterranei | Prodromvs dicitur. | Qvo | Geocosmi Opificivm | Sive | Terrestris Globi Structura, vnà cum abditis | in ea constitutis arcanioris Naturæ Re- | conditorijs, per sicti rapus inte- | gumentum exponitur ad | veritatem, | In III. Dialogos distinctum. | Ad Serenissimvm | Leopoldvm Ignativm | Hungariæ, & Bohemiæ Regem. | Romæ, Typis Mascardi. M.DC.LVII. | [rule] | Svperiorvm Permissv.

[Cross]-[Cross][Cross][Cross]4 A-Gg4 Hh5; 137l.; [24], 1-237, [13] p. Rare.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [6 pgs], Dedication, dated 1 November 1657.; [9 pgs], "Præfatio | Ad Lectorem."; [5 pgs], "Pars Secvnda."; [1 pg], "Ioannes Rho | Provinciæ Romanæ Societa- | tis IESV Præpositus | Prouincialis."-dated 2 August 1657.; [1 pg], "Imprimatur." 1-227, Text.; 228-229, "Synopsis."; 230-237, "Mundus Svbterranevs" [=prodromus for the work].; [12 pgs], "Index."; [1 pg], "Errores sic emenda."

Bibliographical references: Brunet: 3, 667. De Backer, Bibliotheque des Ecrivains, 1853-61: 1, 426.12. Graesse, Trésor de Livres Rares, 1859-69: 4, 21. Merrill, Athanasius Kircher, 1989: no. 13. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque Compagnie de Jesus, 1890: 4, 1057.15.

2. Latin, 1660.
R.P. | Athanasii Kircheri | Iter Extaticum | Coeleste, | Quo Mundi opisicium, id est, Cœlestis Expansi, siderumq; | tam errantium, quàm fixorum natura, vires, proprietates, singulo- | rumq; compositio & structura, ab insimo Telluris globo, usq; ad ultima | Mundi consinia, per sicti raptus integumentum explorata, | novâ hypothesi exponitur ad veritatem, | Interlocvtoribvs | Cosmiele Et Theodidacto: | Hac secundâ editione Prælusionibus & Scholiis illustra- | tum; ac schematismis necessariis, qui deerant, exornatum; nec | non à mendis, quæ in primam Romanam editionem irre- | pserant, expurgaturm, | Ipso Auctore Annuente, | A | P. Gaspare Schotto | Regiscuriano E Societate Jesu, | Olim in Panormitano Siciliæ, nunc in Herbipolitano | Franconiæ Gymnasio ejusdem Societatis Jesu | Matheseos Professore. | Accessit ejusdem Auctoris | Iter Exstatisum Terrestre, | & | Synopsis Mundi Subterranei. | Herbipoli | Sumptibus Joh. Andr. & Wolffg. Jun. Endterorum hæredibus, | Prostat Norimbergæ apud eosdem. | Anno M. DC. LX.

4°: π1 )(-)()()(4 A-Ssss4 Uuuu2; 366l.; [24], 1-689, [19] p. Added engraved vignette title (included in pagination), engraved arms of Joachim von Gravenegg, Abbot of Fulda, on verso of letterpress title, and twelve engraved plates.

Contents: [2 pgs/=π1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [1 pg/=)(1r], Title page.; [1 pg/=)(1v], Engraved coat of arms.; [5 pgs/=)(2r-)()(1r], Dedication to D. Io Achimo.; [1 pg/=)()(1v], Commendations with text starting "Facvlatas..."; [1 pg/=)()(2r], "Bibliopolæ | Monitio ad Lectorem."; [4 pgs/=)()(2v-)()()(4r], "Elenchus Titulorum | Totius Operis." [=table of contents].; [1 pg/=)()()(4v], Blank.; 1-10 (=A-B1v), "Præfatio Scho- | liastæ | Ad Benevolum Lectorem."; 11-18 (=B2r-C1v), "Præfatio Auctoris."; 19-689, Text.; [16 pgs/=Ssss1v-Uuuu1r], "Index | Rerum Præcipuarum."; [2 pgs/=Uuuu1v-Uuuu2r], Errata and "Lectori Meo."; [1 pg/=Uuuu2v], Blank.

Rare. First published in 1656, Itinerarium Exstaticum is one of Kircher's most curious works. It is written in the form of a narrative, consisting of two dialogues, in which a certain Theodidactus is caught up in a dream journey and is guided through the heavens by a spirit named Cosmiel. In the first dialogue, Kircher recounts the journey to the moon, which he finds scarred with mountains and craters, contrary to the Aristotelian view. He flies on to Venus, which he discovers is made of the four elements, and son on to each of the other planets and through the region of the fixed stars. In the second dialogue, he deals with the creation of the earth, its position in the universe, its various characteristics and limitations, and finally, its eventual destruction. The second edition of 1660 was prepared by Kircher's friend and disciple Gaspar Schott [1608-1666].

Bibliographical references: Brunet: III, col. 667. Caillet, Manuel, 1912: 2, 361.5775. De Backer, Bibliotheque des Ecrivains, 1853-61: 1, 426.11. Graesse, Trésor de Livres Rares, 1859-69: 4, 21. Honeyman Sale: 1819. LKG: XIII 2. Merrill, Athanasius Kircher, 1989: no. 14. NUC [no copy listed]. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque Compagnie de Jesus, 1890: 4, 1056-57.14.

Mundus Subterraneus, 1665

3. Latin, 1664-5 [First edition].
Athanasii Kircheri | E Soc. Jesu | Mundus | Subterraneus, | In XII Libros digestus; | Qvo | Divinum Subterrestris Mundi Opificium, mira | Ergasteriorum Naturæ in eo distributio, verbo [{Greek pantamorphon}] | Protei Regnum, | Universæ denique Naturæ Majestas & divitiæ summa | rerum varietate exponuntur. Abditorum effectuum causæ acri indagine | inquisitæ demonstrantur; cognitæ per Artis & Naturæ conjugium ad | humanæ vitæ necessarium usum vario experimentorum apparatu, | necnon novo modo, & ratione applicantur. | Tomus I. [-II.] | Ad | Alexandrum VII. | Pont. Opt. Max. | [vignette] | Amstelodami, | [rule] | Apud Joannem Janssonium & Elizeum Weyerstraten, | Anno cI[Backwards C] I[Backwards C]c lxv. Cum Privilegiis.

[Added engraved title page of volume 1:]

Athanasii Kircheri | E Soc. Jesu | Mundus | Subteraneus | Amsterodami | Apud Joannem Janssonium et Elizeum Weyerstraten. | Romæ. 1664.

[Engraved title page of volume 2:]

[In the upper compartment:] Athanasii Kircheri | e Soc. Iesu | Mundi Subterranei | Tomus | In v. libros digestus quibus | Mundi Subterranei fructus exponuntur, et | quidquid tandem rarum, insolitum, et portentosum | in foecundo Naturæ utero continetur, ante oculos | ponitur curiosi Lectoris. | [In a lower compartment:] Orpheus, followed by 4 lines of text in Greek.

2 vols. (usually bound in one). [Vol 1] 2°: *5 **6 ***4 A-Xx4; 191l.; [30], 1-346, [6] p., portraits, plates (some folding). Title vignette. [Vol 2] 2°: (*)6 A-Xx4 Yy-Zz4 Aaa-Qqq4; 254l.; [12], 487, [9] p., illus., plates (part fold.) maps (part fold.) tables (part fold.) diagrs. Added engraved title page. Title vignette. In double columns; ornamental initials and head- and tailpieces. Page size: 400 x 136 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs/=*1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*2rv], Title page, verso "Joannes Paulus Oliva ..."; [Portrait].; [4 pgs/=*3r-*4v], Dedication to Pope Alexandro VII.; [2 pgs/=*5rv], "Privilegium."; [Portrait of Kircher].; [12 pgs/=**1r-**6v], "Præfatio."; [4 pgs/=***1r-***2v], "Præfatio | Secunda."; [4 pgs/=***3r-***4v], "Index | Argumentorum."; 1-345, Text.; 346, "Catalogus | Liborum."; [6 pgs/=Xx2r-Xx4v], "Index."

[Vol 2] [2 pgs/=(*)1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [4 pgs/=(*)2r-(*)3v], Dedictation to Leopold I.; [2 pgs/=(*)4r-(*)4v], "Proæmium | Ad | Lectorem."; [4 pgs/=(*)5r-(*)6v], "Index | Argumentorum."; 1-487, Text.; [9 pgs/=Rrr4v-Qqq4v], "Index."

Very scarce. First edition, first issue (engraved titles are dated 1664), of this famous and appealing book; it "must always command a high place in the literature as the first effort to describe the earth from a physical standpoint." (Zittel, p. 25). This work is concerned with geology, mineralogy, mining, astronomy, chemistry, and physics. The first two books contain a consideration of the center of gravity of the earth and the form and constitution of the sun, moon, and earth. Book III is devoted to hydrography and Book IV to the earth's interior, volcanoes, and winds. Books VI-VIII treat the earth's composition. Book X is devoted to minerals and mining. It is in this book that Kircher expressed for the first time the theory that the temperature below the earth's surface increases in proportion to depth. There are also sections on distillation (with some fine illustrations of distillation equipment) and glass-making.

Mundus Subterraneus is Kircher's textbok of the physical sciences and is replete with illustrations. It was Kircher's most broadly known work during his life-time, and is the best known in ours. Many chapters deal with geology, mineraology, mining and metallurgy. But the work is not solely geologic. Kircher reports many fantastic speculations about the interior of the earth, its hidden lakes, its rivers of fire, and its strange inhabitants. Major topics include gravity, the moon, the sun, eclipses, ocean currents, subterranean waters and fires, meteorology, rivers and lakes, hydraulics, minerals and fossils, subterranean giants, beasts and demons, poisons, metallurgy and mining, alchemy, the universal seed and the generation of insects, herbs, astrological medicine, distillation, and fireworks. In this work he discloses his experience with palingenesis: he had allegedly resuscitated a plant from its ashes. Much of the work deals with alchemy. Kircher ridiculed Paracelsus' belief in transmutation and discredits the work of alchemists in general, complaining about the obscurity of their writings. This diatribe brought him vicious criticism and abuse later in life from alchemists who no longer feared the authority of the Jesuit order. In this book Kircher expressed for the first time the theory that temperature below the earth's surface increases in proportion to depth. Kircher's Mundus subterraneus contains the first appearance in book form of Eustachio Divini's (1610-1685) "Lunae Facies", a moon map first published in 1649 in broadsheet as an advertisement for the quality of his lenses.

Bibliographical references: Brunet: 3, 667-8. Caillet, Manuel, 1912: no. 5738. De Backer, Bibliotheque des Ecrivains, 1853-61: 1, 427-28.17. Ferguson, Bibliographia Paracelsica. Glasgow, 1877: 1, 467. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 307. Graesse, Trésor de Livres Rares, 1859-69: 4, 21. Hoover Collection: no. 483. Merrill, Athanasius Kircher, 1989: no. 17. Nissen (ZBI): no. 2196. Norman Catalog: 1, ??, no. 1218. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 37697. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3419. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque Compagnie de Jesus, 1890: 4, 1060-63.21. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1257. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 3, 395.

4. Latin, 1668 [2nd edition].
Athanasii Kircheri Mundus subterraneus, in XII libros digestus; quo divinum subterrestris mundi opificium, mira ergasteriorum naturae in eo distributio, verbo [Greek pantamorphon] Protei regnum, vniversae denique naturae majestas & divitiae summa rerum varietate exponuntur. Abditorum effectuum causae acri indagine inquisitae demonstrantur; cognitae per artis & naturae conjugium ad humanae vitae necessarium usum vario experimentorum apparatu, necnon novo modo, & ratione applicantur. Amstelodami, Apud Joannem Janssonium a Waesberge & viduam Elizaei Weyerstraet, 1668.

2 vols. in one. 2°: [28], 346, [6] p.; [x], 487, [9] p., 2 added engraved title pages, 1 engraved title page vignette, decorated initials, tailpieces, 11 engraved maps (8 folding, including 1 map of the moon), 12 engraved plates (4 folding), 66 engraved maps and figs. in the text, over 220 woodcut figs., tables (7 folding), indexes; engraved ports. of Pope Alexander VII (the dedicatee) and Kircher Added engr. t.p. and engr. t.p. of v. 2 dated 1665. Reprint of the 1665 ed. Includes indexes. Page size: 400 x 246 mm.

Very scarce. The engraved title pages are dated 1665, the printed title-page to Vol. I dated 1668.

Mundus Subterraneus, 1678

5. Latin, 1678 [3rd edition].
Athanasii Kircheri | E Soc. Jesu | Mundus | Subterraneus, | in XII Libros digestus; | Qvo | Divinum Subterrestris Mundi Opiflicium, mira | Ergasteriorum Naturæ in eo distributio, verbo [Greek pantamorphon] | Protei Regnum, | Universæ denique Naturæ majestas & divitiæ summa | rerum varietate exponuntur, Abditorum effectuum Causæ acri indagine | inquisitæ demonstrantur, conitæ per Artis & Naturæ conjugium ad | Humanæ vitæ necessarium usum vario Experimentorum apparatu, | necnon novo modo, & ratione applicantur. | Ad | Alexandrum VII. | Pont. Opt. Max. | Editio Tertia, | Ad sidem scripti exemplaris recognita, & prioribus emendatior: tum ab Auctore Româ | submissis variis Obsrevationibus novisque Figuris auctior. | Tomus I. [-II.] | [vignette] | Amstelodami, | [rule] | Apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesbrege & Filios, | Anno cI[Backwards C] I[Backwards C]c lxxviii. Cum Privilegiis.

2 parts in one volume. [Part 1] 2°: *4 **6 A-Zz4 Aaa2 ($2 or $3 signed; includes engraved title page); 196l.; [20], 1-366, [6] p. [Part 2] 2°: π1 *4 A-Rrr4 Sss6 (includes engraved title page); 263l.; [10], 1-507, [9] p. Added engraved title pages in both parts. Very scarce.

Contents: [Part 1] [2 pgs/=*1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*2rv], Title page, verso "Joannes Paulus Oliva | ..."; [4 pgs/=*3r-*4v], Dedication to Pope Alexander VII.; [9 pgs/=**1r-**5r], "Præfatio."; [3 pgs/=**5v-**6v], "Index Argumentorum" [=table of contents].; 1-366 (=A-Zz3v), Text.; [6 pgs/=Zz4r-Aaa2v], "Index | Rerum & Verborum | Locupletissimus."

[Part 2] [2 pgs/=π1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*1rv], "Dedicatio."-dated June 1663.; [2 pgs/=*2r-*2v], "Prœmium | Ad | Lectorem. | Idea Operis."; [4 pgs/=*3r-*4v], "Index Argumentorum."; 1-507 (=A-Sss2r), Text.; [Starting p. 507 and next 9 pgs/=Sss2r-Sss6v], "Index | Rerum & Verborum | Tomi Secundi."

Facsimile reprint, 2004: Mundus subterraneus in XII libros digestus. Editio tertia. Firenze, Forni Reprint, 2004. 942 p., 25 plates.

Bibliographical references: Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 322 [incorrectly calling for 23 plates]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 308. LKG: XIII 3a. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 2, 328-33. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3421.

6. Dutch, 1682 [Dutch transl.].
d'Onder-aardse weereld in haar Goddelijk maaksel en wonderbare uitwerkselen aller dingen; vervat in II deelen. Waar van dit eerste handeld van het wiskundig werkstuk des aardkloots in 't heel-al. De konstige samenstel en schikking der bergen; de krachtige beweging der zeen en rivieren; den oorsprong der onderaardse vuuren, winden en fonteinen; beneffens der selve woedend vermogen in de tempeesten en aardbevingen; de vremde werkingen der wateren, baden en meiren; als mede hoe en op wat wyse de souten, de metallen, de swavels en andere vruchten binnen d'ingewanden der aarde, als door een konstigen werkmeester natuurlijk werden voortgebracht. Het tweede deel; daar in de wonderbare kracht der werksame natuur in de voortbrenging der menigerlei schepselen, en der selver gedurige op en ondergang, in V. boeken naauwkeurig beschreven wordt. Handelende van de seldsaame aart der velerlei steenen, dieren, menschen en duivelen; de kracht en werking der wateren en fonteinen; de groejing der mijnstoffen en metallen; de waare en valsche goudsoekerye; de kracht der zaden en zadelijkheid; 't voorkomen der ondieren, planten en gewassen; de nuttigheid der distilleerkunde en veel vermogende stofscheidinge, glasblasen en allerhande konst en handgrepen die tot vermaak an algemeene dienst der menschen door arbeidsame geesten omtrent alle geseide dingen konnen in 't werk gestelt worden. Uit het Latijn vertaalt. Amsterdam, Heirs of Joannes Janssonius van Waasberge, 1682.

2 vols in one. [Vol 1] 2°: *4 ††6 A-Hhh6; 228l.; [20], 1-425, [11] p. Added engraved illustrated title-page. [Vol 2] 2°: *4 A-Fff4 Ggg6; 215l.; [8], 1-415, [13] p., illus. (including diagrams) 18 plates (16 double) including maps, charts, tables. Title of volume two varies slightly. Vol. 2, pages 132 & 136 numbered as 232 & 236. With richly engraved allegorical frontispiece including various instruments of drawing, surveying and measuring, large allegorical engraving on the first title including all kinds of subterranean natural phenomena and creatures, large armorial engraving to the dedication, several tables in text, over 200 woodcuts in text of geometrical and perspectival, geological and geographical figures and illustrations in text, including full-page woodcut plates of distilling apparatus and of man as microcosmos set within macrocosmos, 74 engraved maps and illustrations in text, several full-page, and 13 full-page or folding engraved maps and plates, including maps of the moon, sun, the subterranean waters, views of the volcanos Vesuvius and Etna, and view of the machinery in a saltmine-shaft, signed by Bonzon. Page size: 446 x 272 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs/=*1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*2rv], Printed title page, verso blank.; [1 pg/=*3r], Dedication to Thomas Ernsthuys.; [3 pgs/=*3v-*4v], "Directeur Generaal" (=Opdragt).; [7 pgs/=††1r-††4r], "Voor-Reden."; [5 pgs/=††4v-††6v], "Kort Inhoud | Van De | Boeken en Hooftstukken." (=table of contents).; 1-425 (=A-Hhh1r), Text.; [11 pgs/=Hhh1v-Hhh6v], Index.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs/=*1rv], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*2rv], "Voor-Reden | Tot Den | Leezer."; [4 pgs/=*3r-*4v], Table of contents.; 1-415 (=A-Fff4r), Text.; [13 pgs/=Fff4v-Ggg6v], Index.

Rare. Dutch edition of Mundus Subterraneus.

Bibliographical references: Caillet, Manuel, 1912: no. 5783. LKG: XIII 3a. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 37967. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque Compagnie de Jesus, 1890: 4, 1061-2.

7. English, 1669 [English transl.].
The | Volcano's: | Or, | Burning and Fire-vomiting Mountains, | Famous in the World: | VVith their Remarkables. | Collected for the most part out of Kircher's | Subterraneous World; | And expos'd to more general view in English, upon the Relation | of the late Wonderful and Prodigious Eruptions of Ætna. | Thereby to occasion greater admirations of the Wonders of Na- | ture (and of the God of Nature) in the mighty Element of Fire. | Res semper aliquid apportat novi. | None sadlier knows the unresisted Ire, | Then Thou, Poor London! of th' all-raging Fire. | But these occasion'd kindlings are but Blazes, | To th' mighty Burnings, which fierce Nature raises. | If then a Town; or Hills blaze be so dire; | What will be th' last, and Universal Fire? | Licensed and Entered according to Order. | London, Printed by J. Darby, for John Allen; and are to be sold by him, | at the White Horse in Wentworth near Bell Lane; And by Benjamin | Billingsly at the Printing-Press in Broad-Street near Gresham-Colledg, 1669.

4°: A-I4 K2; 38l.; [8], 1-68 p., one plate.

Contents: [2 pgs/=A1], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=A2], "The Epistle to the Reader."; [3 pgs/=A3r-A4r], "The Explication of the Schemes, out of Kircher."; [1 pg/=A4v], "The Table." (=table of contents).; 1-64, Text.; 65-68, "A fuller Relation of the Spanish Priests Error and | attemp, about getting Gold out of one of these flam- | ing Mountains in the West-Indies."

Very scarce. A translation into English of those portions of the Mundus Subterraneus dealing exclusively with volcanoes.

Bibliographical references: Hoover Collection: no. 484. LKG: XIII 263. Merrill, Athanasius Kircher, 1989: no. 18. Wing: K-624 Variant.

8. Latin, 1667.
Athanasii Kircheri | E Soc. Jesu | China | Monumentis | Qva | Sacris quà Profanis, | Nec non variis | Naturæ & Artis | Spectaculis, | Aliarumque rerum memorabilium | Argumentis | Illustrata, | Auspiciis | Leopldi Primi | Munificentißimi Mecænatis. | [ornament] | Amstelodami, | [rule] | Apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesberge & Elizeum Weyerstraet, | Anno cI[Backwards C] I[Backwards C]c lxvii. Cum Privilegiis.

4°: *-**4 A-Hh4; 132l.; [16], 1-237, [11] p., 23 plates, 2 folding maps, illus. Page size: 326 x 218 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs/=*1rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [1 pg/=*2r], Title page.; [1 pg/=*2v], "Joannes Paulus Olivia | ..."; [5 pgs/=*3r-**1r], Dedication to Joanni Paulo Olivia, dated 8 December 1666.; [3 pgs/=**1v-**2v], "Proœmium | Ad | Lectorem."; [3 pgs/=**3r-**4r], "Index | Capitum."; [1 pg/=**4v], "Index | Figuarum." [=list of plates].; [Portrait of Kircher in an oval frame].; 1-237 (=A-Gg3r), Text.; [8 pgs/=Gg3v-Hh3r], "Index | Rerum & Locorum | Memorabilium."; [1 pg/=Hh3v], "Typographi | Lectori | Salutem."; [2 pg/=Hh4r-Hh4v], "Elenchus | Liborum | A | P. Athanasio Kirchero." [=list of Kircher's books].

Rare. "China, like Egypt, was to Kircher an ancient and mysterious land, highly civilized, filled with strange creatures and unimaginable marvels, and, above all, having an origin and universality common with all nations...China had been open to Christian missionaries for only a few decades when Kircher, at 28, applied to go there. He was refused, but the refusal only whetted his curiosity. Over the next 37 years he maintained a voluminous correspondence with fellow Jesuits in China, gleaning all the information he could from their letters and journals." Included in the observations and materials Kircher received about China were mineralogical specimens.

Bibliographical references: Brunet: 3, 666-7. Caillet, Manuel, 1912: 2, 361.5773. De Backer, Bibliotheque des Ecrivains, 1853-61: 1, 428-29.21. Graesse, Trésor de Livres Rares, 1859-69: 4, 21. LKG: XIV 863 & 864. Merrill, Athanasius Kircher, 1989: no. 20. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque Compagnie de Jesus, 1890: 4, 1063-65.24.

9. French, 1670 [French transl.].
La Chine d'Athanase Kirchere ... illustrée de plusieurs monuments tant sacrés que profanes, et de quantité de recherchés de la nature et de l'art. A quoy on à adjousté de nouveau les questions curieuses que le serenissime grandduc de Toscane a fait dépuis peu au P. Jean Grubere touchant ce grand empire. Avec un dictionnaire chinois qui n'apas encores paru au jour. Traduit par F.S. Dalquié. Amsterdam: Chez J. Jansson à Waesberge & les heritiers d'Elizée Weyerstræt, 1670.

4°: [16], 367, [11], [2] p., illustrated, 23 plates, frontispiece portrait, 2 folding maps.

Very scarce. First French edition, translated by F.S. Dalquié. Description and travel in China.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 863 & 864.

Musaeum Kircherianum, sive Musaeum a p. Athanasio Kirchero in Collegio romano Societatis Jesu jam pridem incoeptum nuper restitutum, auctum, descriptum, & iconibus illustratum, excellentissimo domino Francisco Mariae Ruspolo ... oblatum a p. Philippo Bonanni ... (Romae, 1709).
See under: Buonanni (bonanni), Filippo.