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(1760 – 1852)

(Born: Åbo near Helsingfors (Helsinki), Finland, 5 June 1760; Died: Wirmo, Finland, 15 August 1852) Finnish chemist.

Son of astronomer and physicist Jacob Gadolin [1719-1802]. For a time, Johann was a student of Bergman at the University of Upsala. From 1786 to 1788, Johann traveled outland to complete his studies and broaden his knowledge. He became a docent at the University of Åbo in 1789, and following Gadd's death, he was appointed professor of chemistry; a post he held until 1822. He specilized in the analysis of rare earth elements, and is credited with the discovery in 1794 of the element yttrium. Gadolin's mineral collection was destroyed in 1827 by fire when the Turku Academy burned down. Gadolin held membership in the Academy of Science in Stockholm. The mineral "Gadolinite" was name in his honor by M.H. Klaproth in 1802.

Biographical references: Biographiskt Lexicon. DSB: 5, 215-6 [by S.J. Kopperl]. Finsk Biografisk Handbok: 1, cols. 726-8. Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: 57-9. Nordin-Pettersson, Konstsamlingar, 1971: 436. Ojala, V. and E.R. Schierz, "Finnish chemists", Journal of Chemical Education, 14, (1937), 161-5. Oma Maa, 1907-12: 4, 645-9 [by R. Tigerstedt]. Poggendorff: 1, col. 827. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-086, 322-344. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 377. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 16, 717. Tigerstedt, R.A.A., Johan Gadolin. Ett bidrag till de induktiva vetenskapernas historia in Finland. Helsinki, 1877.. WBI. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, 1934: 230-1, portrait. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 136 & 171.

Dissertatio chemica de Analysi Ferri ... Respondent Johannes Gadolin. (Upsala, 1781).
See under: Bergman, Torbern Olof.

Dissertatio chemica de Analysi Ferri ... Respondent Johannes Gadolin. [Translated by Grignon.] (Paris, 1783).
See under: Bergman, Torbern Olof.

1. Latin, 1823.
Index Fossilium Analysibus Chemicis Examinatorum, ratione Ponderis, Capacitatis et Oxygenii Partium, Designatorum. Aboæ, 1823.

4°: 1-69 p.

Rare. Listing of the chemical examination of minerals, with respect to the proportion of oxygen they contain.

Bibliographical references: Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: 58-9.

2. Latin, 1827 [Dissertations].
Novus fossilium index | rationes ponderis, capacitatis | et | oxygenii partium constittutivarum ostendens, | cujus partem primam (secundam, terttiam ... decimam tertiam) | consensu amplissimæ facultatis philosophicæ | præsidæ | Mag. Johanne Gadolin | [...8 lines of titles and memberships...] | pro gradu philosophico | publico examini subjicit | Carolus Vilhelmus Ramstedt [(name of defendant)] | stipend. publ. Ostrobottniensis. (local "affinity" of defendant) | In auditorio philos. Die XXV Maji MDCCCXXVII. (date of defence) | H.A.M.S. (H.P.M.S.; A.M.; P.M.) | [rule] | Aboæ | Typis Frenckellianis.

4°: π1 A4 2π1 B4 3π1 C4 4π1 D4 5π1 E4 6π1 F4 7π1 G4 8π1 H4 9π1 I4 10π1 K4 11π1 L4 12π1 M4 13π1 N4 ; 65l.; [2], [1]-8, [2], 9-16, [2], 17-24, [2], 25-32, [2], 33-40, [2], 41-48, [2], 49-56, [2], 57-64, [2], 65-72, [2], 73-80, [2], 81-88, [2], 89-96, [2], 97-103, [1] p.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Theses" (In all, 13 such leaves).; [1]-14, text.; 15-103, alphabetical mineral-list.; [1 pg], blank.

Rare. Chemical "system" listing approximately 1500 minerals and compounds in alphabetic order. Presented in thirteen individual disertations (C. V. Ramstedt, G. H. Schroderus, F. A. Borg, C. Kullman, S. E. Sjöman, O. U. Tulindberg, N. A. Lund, J. A. Holm, G. G. Riddelin, O. V. Mohell, G. V. Himberg, J. F. Lindberg, J. J. af Gadolin), each with a title-page of its own excluded from the collective pagination, the verso of each such title-page listing 5 theses to be defended. \JKjellman

Bibliographical references: NUC. SWIM.

Systema Fossilium, 1825

3. Latin, 1825.
Systema Fossilium | Analysibus Chemicis Examinatorum | Secundum Parium Constitutivarum | Rationes Ordinatorum | [tapered rule] | Exhibitum | Ab | Joanne Gadolin, | [...8 lines of titles and memberships...] | [tapered rule] | Berolini | Apud Ge. Reimerum. MDCCCXXV.

4°: π1 1-304 312; 122l.; [2], [1]-240, [2] p. Page size: 248 x 204 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-10, "Systema Fossilium | secundum partium constitutivarum rationem ordinatorum." [=introduction].; 11-222, Text.; 223-240, "Index Synonymorum Citatorum."; [2 pgs], "Errata typographica."

Scarce. Gadolin was a man of practical and technical applications. He viewed minerals as natural chemical products, and consequently investigated through chemistry the minerals and rocks of his country. At that time, very little was known of mineral paragensis, but thanks to the publications of Haüy and Berzelius a new foundation in mineral chemistry was being laid. In the Systema Fossilium, Gadolin creates a system of mineral classification based upon chemical principles. The introduction explains the reasons and application of Gadolin's theories, while the text is a systematic ordering of mineral species by their chemistry. The volume concludes with an index of mineral synonyms.

Bibliographical references: Hausen, History of Mineralogy in Finland, 1968: 14-15, 16, 21 & 33.