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Parker Cleaveland

(1780 - 1858)

(Born: Byefield, Massachuesetts, U.S.A., 15 January 1780; Died: Brunswick, Maine, U.S.A., 15 October 1858) American physician, geologist, mineralogist & educator.

Cleaveland graduated with an M.A. from Harvard in 1802, receiving his M.D. from Dartmouth in 1823, and his LL.D. from Bowdoin College on 1824. From 1799 to 1802, he taught school in York, Maine, then he became a tutor in math and natural philosophy at Harvard until 1805. Cleveland was then appointed professor of math and natural philosophy at Bowdoin College where he remained the rest of his life. He was also was from 1820 to '58, professor of materia medica at the Medical School of (Brunswick) Maine. Cleaveland held membership in many scientific societies including the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. A variety of the mineral albite was named "Cleavelandite" after him by H.J. Brooke in 1823.

Biographical references: ABA: I 312, 64-65, 106-114. American Chemists & Chemical Engineers: 1, 83-4 [by S.E. Kamerling]. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 292 [1 portrait listed]. DAB: 4, 189-90 [by M.P. Cram]. DSB: 3, 313 [by J.G. Burke]. Elliott, Biographical Index, 1990: 44. Elliott, Biographical Dictionary, 1979: 56. Greene & Burke, Minerals in the Age of Jefferson, 1978. Ireland, Index to Scientists, 1962: 130. Merrill, First One Hundred Years, 1924: 45-6, portrait (p. 42). Merrill, History of American Geology, 1906. National Cyclopedia of American Biography: 13, 56, portrait. Riley, T.A., "Goethe and Parker Cleaveland", Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 61, (1952), 350-74. Sarjeant, Geologists, Suppl. 2, 1995: 1, 512-3. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 618. WBI. Woods, L., Address on the life and character of Parker Cleaveland, LL.D., Late professor of chemistry, mineralogy and natural philosophy in Bowdoin College. Delivered in Augusta, January 19, 1859, before the Maine Historical Society. Brunswick, Maine, J. Griffin, 1860. [1]-80 p., frontispiece [portrait]. World Who's Who in Science: 344.

Elementary Treatise, 1816

1. English, 1816 [First edition].
An | Elementary Treatise | on | Mineralogy and Geology, | being an Introduction to the Study of These Sciences, | and designed | for the use of pupils, - for persons attending lectures | on these subjects, - and as a companion for | travelers | in | The United States of America. | Illustrated by Six Plates. | [double rule] | By Parker Cleaveland, | [...4 lines of titles & memberships...] | [double rule] | [...3 lines of Latin quotation...] | [double rule] | Boston: | Published by Cummings and Hilliard, No. 1, Cornhill. | [double rule] | Printed by Hilliard and Metcalf, at the University Press, | Cambridge, N. England. | 1816.

8 in 4s: [a]4 b2 1-824 832 844; 340l.; [i]-xii, [1]-668 p., 5 folding plates, one folding hand-colored map. Page size: 235 x 140 mm. uncut.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso "District of Maine" registration notice.; [iii], Dedication to Benjamin Vaughan.; [iv], Literature and abbreviations.; [v]-x, "Preface."; [xi]-xii, "Contents."; [1]-4, "Introductions to the Study of Mineralogy. Chapter I. Definitions and Preliminary Observations."; 4-66, "Chapter II. Properties of Minerals."; 66-84, "Chapter III. Systematic Arrangement of Minerals."; 84-86, "Chapter IV. Nomenclature of Minerals."; 86-585, "Tabular View of Simple Minerals" -being the descriptive mineralogy.; [586]-636, "Introduction to the Study of Geology.; [637]-641, "Remarks on the Geology of the United States, Explanatory of the subjoined Geological Map - (PL. VI)."; [642]-647, "Vocabulary, containing an explanation of certain terms, used in the preceding volume.; more particularly those which relate to Chemical Nomenclature."; [648]-649, "Explanation of the plates."; [650], Blank.; [651]-667, "Index."; 668, "Errata."; [At end], plates and map.

Plates: The folding hand-colored map shows the eastern United States to the the west of the Missippii River. Major cities and rivers are located. In the lower right-hand quadrant is the text: "The | United States | of | America | Published by | Cummings & Hilliard. | N 1. Cornhill. | Boston. | Wightman Sc." The five folding plates show either apparatus or crystal drawings. Plates 1, 2 & 4 are signed W.B. Annin Sc., while plates 3 & 5 are signed M. Butler Sculp.

Scarce. This is the first textbook authored by an American, which focused on the mineralogy and geology of America. From the outset Cleaveland had set as his task to write a textbook of mineralogy and geology particularly suited to American readers. All other mineralogies prior to this volume had been European in origin, and no one had described the minerals of America in a comprehensive way. The task for Cleaveland was daunting. America was a large area which he could not hope to completely explore. Even so Cleaveland took the first step. Starting in 1809 he began to develop a network of correspondents and informants throughout the Eastern United States with the goal of developing a list of American mineral localities. Through persevering diligence he slowly accumulated the necessary information. Even the War of 1812 did not unduly delay the project, although Cleaveland did prepare his notes for rapid evacuation in the event the British soldiers encamped several miles away did pillage Bowdoin College. Throughout this research Benjamin Silliman of Yale University was a tower of strength to Cleaveland and his project; Silliman supplied specimens, preformed chemical analyses and experiments and advised Cleaveland as to the general plan the book should follow.

The work is divided into three sections: Introduction, Descriptive Mineralogy and Geology. The Introduction is made up of four chapters. The first covering definitions and preliminary observations is derived from the German school of mineralogy, most notably Werner's philosophies. The second chapter concerns crystallography, external characters and chemical composition of minerals. Chapter three outlines the classification system by which the minerals will be arranged. It is a composite system with its roots in the schemes developed by Hay and Bronigart. The final chapter of the introduction describes the nomenclature of mineralogy. Following the introduction, a "Tabular View of the Simple Minerals" is presented. This section the largest of the work is essentially a descriptive mineralogy. It emphasizes American localities but is also one of the great descriptive mineralogies of the time. Cleaveland had not studied in Europe, and so his only knowledge of mineralogy had been self learned from the principle mineralogical works of Kirwan, Hay, Jameson, Thomson, Bronigart, Werner, etc. In his descriptions, Cleaveland syntheses the ideas of these varied authors into a description for each mineral that is however his own statement. The final section of Cleaveland's Treatise is devoted to the geology of the United States, and includes as illustration a geological map of the Atlantic seaboard. This was a composite of a geographical map prepared by his publisher, Cummings and Hilliard, and a geological map previously published by William Maclure.

Upon its publication the Treatise was deservedly praised both in America and Europe as the definitive statement on American mineralogy. Reviewers on both sides of the Atlantic praised its content, and the tireless efforts of the author in acquiring locality information. His peers also acknowledged the value of the work. No less a personage the famous Hay is reported to have called it, "the best elementary work on the science extant." It was due to this welcome reception that the first printing of 1000 copies was nearly sold out by the summer of 1818.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 130. Hazen & Hazen, American Geological Literature, 1980: no. 2420. NUC. Rink, Technical Americana, 1981: no. 775. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 216. Shaw & Shoemaker, American Bibliography, 1958-83: no. 37266.

Elementary Treatise, 1822

2. English, 1822 [2nd edition].
An | Elementary Treatise | on | Mineralogy and Geology, | designed | for the use of pupils, - for persons, attending lectures | on these subjects, - and as a companion for | travellers | in | The United States of America. | Illustrated by six plates. | [rule] | By Parker Cleaveland, | [...9 lines of titles & memberships...] | [rule] | [...3 lines of Latin quotation...] | [double rule] | Second edition, - In Two Volumes. | Vol. I. [-II.] | [double rule] | Boston; | Published by Cummings and Hilliard, No. 1, Cornhill. | [rule] | Printed by Hilliard and Metcalf, at the University Press, | Cambridge, N. England. | 1822.

[Vol 1] 8 in 4s: [a4] b2 1-144 152 16-604 612; 246l.; [i]-x, [2] contents, [1]-480 p., frontispiece folding map; [Vol 2] 8 in 4s: π1 612 62-1034; 167l.; [2], [481]-818, [1] errata, [1] blank p., 5 folding plates (mostly of crystals). Page size: 212 x 124 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso "District of Maine" registration notice.; [iii], Dedication to Benjamin Vaughan.; [iv], "Advertisement."; [v]-x, "Preface."; [2 pages], "Contents."; [1]-4, "Introduction to the Study of Mineralogy. Chapter I. Definitions and Preliminary Observations."; 4-76, "Chapter II. Properties of Minerals."; 76-94, "Chapter III. Systematic Arrangement of Minerals."; 97-98, "Tabular View of Simple Minerals.; according to the order, in which they are arranged and described in this work."; [99]-116, "Tabular View."; [117]-480, "Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy"-being the descriptive mineralogy.;

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso "District of Maine" registration notice.; [481]-717, Descriptive mineralogy continues from the previous volume.; [718]-771, "Introduction to the Study of Geology."; [772]-774, "Appendix I. Meteoric Stones."; 774-783, "Appendix II. This Appendix contains an account of those facts, which have been collected during the printing of the preceding volume ..."; [784]-788, "Remarks on the geology of the United States, explanatory of the Subjoined Geological Map. (Pl. VI.)."; [789]-796, "Vocabulary, conatining an explanation of certain terms, used in the preceding volume.; more particularly those, which relate to the Chemical Nomenclature."; [797]-798, "Explanation of the Plates."; [799]-818, "Index."; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 5 plates.

Scarce. The first edition of the Treatise had sold out in 1818. Cleaveland at the behest of his publisher undertook the preparation of a second edition. For this work he decided to focus even more on American localities. This lead him to send out an announcement of his intention to produce a second edition, adding an appeal for descriptions of mineral localites in the United States.

"I am preparing a new edition of my Mineralogy, and solicit from you accounts of new Localities, and such other remarks, as may tend to render the work more useful."

"I wish to connect with the account of the Locality some brief Geological notice, viz. whether the mineral occurs in veins, or in beds, or is disseminated-the associated minerals-and the rock, which contains them. In most cases, the form, structure, and prevailing color of the mineral may be mentioned."

"I also wish to obtain as accurate information, as possible, in regard to all minerals explored for useful or ornamental purposes, such as Nitre, Common Salt, Marble, Marl, Gypsum, Precious Stones, Steatite, Roof Slate, Clays, Pigments, Anthracite, Graphite, Coal, Ores of metals, Chromate of Lead, &c. The quanitity of the aforementioned substances annually obtained or manufactured, the quality, including the per cent. of metal yielded by ores, and the price are particularly requested." [Quoted by Greene, J.C. & Burke, J.G. (1978), p. 90-91.]

The response to Cleaveland's request was extraordinary. His colleagues were eager to supply all the information they could to insure the second editon was a success. More than any revisions Cleaveland made to the text, it was the inclusion of this data that balloned the size of the Treatise an additional 150 pages.

This work with minor revision follows the scheme of the first edition. It contains a frontispiece geological map prepared from William Maclure's earlier map of 1817 and written communications with H.H. Hayden. It was the second major geological map of the United States. Of the text, the first part treats crystallography, physical and optical properties, chemistry, systematics of mineralogy, and nomenclature. This is followed by the descriptive mineralogy, which begins in volume one and is carried well into the second. The introduction to geology then commences. A vocabulary, explanation of the five plates, and an index conclude the work.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 131. NUC. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 216.

3. English, 1873.
Address | made at the | Opening of the Cleaveland Cabinet | of | Bowdoin College, | July 10, 1873. | By Nehemiah Cleveland. | With an Appendix. | Boston: | James R. Osgood And Company. | 1873.

8: 35 p.

Rare. A beloved teacher, a natural history cabinet was inaugurated in Parker Cleaveland's honor on July 10, 1873 at Bowdoin College, Maine. This is an account of the opening address made at that occasion.

Bibliographical references: NUC. NYPL Catalog.

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