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Karl E.I. Eichwald
EICHWALD, Karl Eduard Ivanovich.

EICHWALD, Karl Eduard Ivanovich.
(1795 - 1876)

(Born: Jelgava, Latvia, 4 July 1795; Died: St. Petersburg, Russia, 16 November 1876) Latvian geologist & naturalist.

Eichwald (or the Russian Eikhval'd) studied medicine and natural sciences at the University of Berlin, 1814-17. Returning to Russia, he served as professor at the universities of Dorpat (present-day Tartu), 1821, Kazan, 1823, and Wilno (present-day Vilnius), 1829, and the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy, 1838-51. During this last appointment, he also lectured on paleontology at the St. Petersburg Mining Institute. He made several extended trips throughout the Urals and western Russia. Eichwald wrote on many subjects besides mineralogy. These include geology, paleontology, geography, plants and animals. In the field of zoology, he discovered many species new to Russia, and wrote Zoologia Specialis (3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1829-31), which outlined a classification of animals based on comparative anatomy, physiology, and paleontology. He also wrote numerous textbooks for use in Russia's universities. Eichwald was a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences from 1826.

Biographical references: DSB: 4, 307-9 [by V.V. Tikhomirov]. Great Soviet Encyclopedia: 29, 334. Poggendorff: 1, col. 650. Raikov, B.E., Russkie Biologi-Evoliutsionisty do Darvina. [in Russian]. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951. See volume 2, pages 321-89. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 951. Verhandlungen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wien: 7 (1876), 832 [obituary]. Walter, C.F., Viro excellentissimo et doctissimo Dr. Eduardo de Eichwald, memoriom recolenti d. 18. m maii MDCCCLXIX. St. Petersburg, 1869. Zvorykin, Biograficheskii Slovar, 1958: 2, 407.

1. German, 1830.
Naturhistorische Skizze von Lithauen, Volhynien und Podolien in geognostisch-mineralogischer, botanischer und zoologischer Hinsicht. Wilna, auf Kosten des Verfassers gedruckt bei Joseph Zawadzki, 1830.

4°: [6], 256 p., 2 lithographic plates.

Rare. First edition of these contributions for the natural history of the Baltic, which was the result of a four-month journey. On behalf the Wilno University should observe calibration forest above all the geognostische storage of the mountain masses in the bereisten area, but forced themselves upon it also an abundance of botanischer and zoo-logical phenomena, which are seized in own remarks. With longer printed dedication at Alexander of Humboldt. Eduard calibration forest (1794-1876) - biologist, geologist and paleontologist - member of the Academy of Sciences was in pc. Petersburg. He is considered as the founders of the Russian paleontology and wrote the first complete manuals for Russian geology and mineralogy. He belonged to the German scholars, those in the first half 19th Century were crucially in the up and development of the scientific research in Russia involved. The plates show a map of the environment of Mondsibosh, the fresh water formation of Kunstschah and the plan of the forest of Bialowesha.

Bibliographical references: Engelmann, Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis, 1846: p. 85. NDB: 4, 387-388. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturę Botanicę, 1871-3: no. 2651.

Oriktognoziia, 1844

2. Russian, 1844 [First edition].
Ориктогнозiя | Преимуэ9ествнно Въ Отношенiи | Къ Россiи | И | Съ Присовокупленiемъ Употреъленiя Минераловъ | Сосмаеленнал | Академнкомъ Э. Эйхвалъдомъ. | [ornate rule] | Санктпетербургъ. | 1844.

[Transliterated title:]

Oriktognoziia | Preimshchestvnno V Otnoshenyi | K Rossi | I | S Prisovokupleniem Upotreblenia Mineralov | Sosmavlennal | Akademnikom E. Eikhval'dom. | [ornate rule] | Sanktpeterburg. | 1844.

8°: [i]-x, [1]-377, [1] p.

Rare. In his textbook, Oryctognosy mainly with Regards to Russia, Eichwald has focused his descriptions on those mineralogical species found in the Russian empire. He was able to rely on his own extensive exploration of the country to write comprehensively on the subject. Eichwald also introduces his new mineralogical classification based on chemistry, which on sound arguments excludes liquids and gases from mineralogy.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. NUC. Povarennykh, Definition of Mineral, 1964: p. 44. Puzuirevski, Katalogia Bibliotekia, 1867 [no copy listed].

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