(1223 - 1284)
(Born: Burgos, Spain, 23 November 1223; Died: Sevilla, Spain, 4 April 1284) Spanish monarch.
Alphonso X was son of Ferdinand III and Queen Beatriz. He ruled as King of Castilli and Leon from 1252 to 1284. An interest in science and literature caused him to establish a school for Muhammad al-Riquti, and he completed the incorporation of the University of Salamanca in 1254. He continued a campaign against the Moors, capturing Cadiz in 1262. Through his sponsorship, a translation of Old Testament was prepared by Jews of Toledo and the first history of Spain written. His policies were a catalyst in bringing Arabic knowledge to Europe. A crater on the moon was named "Alphonsus" in his honor.
Biographical references: Poggendorff: 1, col. 30. World Who's Who in Science: 29.
Lapidario del Rey, 1881
1. Spanish, 1881.
Lapidario | Del Rey | D. Alfonso X. | [ornate rule] | Codice Original.
4°: [i]-[ii], 1l., [iii]-xx,  p., 118l., 14l., -76 p., colored initials and drawings. Ornate colored title page. Published by, Madrid, Imprenta de la Iberia, a Cargo de J. Blasco, 1881.
Page size: 300 x 210 mm.
Contents: [i-ii], Blank, verso "Madrid | [rule] | Imprenta De La Iberia, Á Cargo De J. Blasco | Calle De Lope De Vega, Núms. 23 y 25 | 1881."; 1 l., Reproduction of the manuscript's title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xx, "Prólogo. | [rule] | D. José Fernandez Montaña Presítero, Á Los Leerán."; [5 pgs], "Informe | De La | Real Academia De La Historia."-signed Aureliano Fernandez-Guerra & Pedro De Madrazo, 31 September 1879.; [1 pg], Blank.; [4 pgs], Reproduction of a letter dated 2 April 1883.; [2 pgs], Blanks.; 118 l., Color reproduction of leaves from the manuscript.; 14l., Continuation of reproduction of manuscript.; -58, "Del Signo De Aries."-being a description of each of the signs of the zodiac in reference to the text of the manuscript.; -76, "Sobre Las Faces De Los Signos."
Scarce. Photographic reproduction of an illuminated manuscript prepared in 1278 on the command of King Alfonso X of Spain. The original is in the collection of the San Lorenzo Library in Escurial, Madrid. In the preface, José Fernandez Montana gives observations on the original manuscript and the sources of its information.
Facsimile reprint, 1970: Alfonson X ... Lapidario. Texto ... María Brey Mariño. Sequnda Edición. [Madrid]: Editorial Castalia, 1970. 8°: xxx, , 275,  p., figs., paper wraps.
Bibliographical references: BL [MS.Facs.222.]. Connoissur Magazine: 31-6 [Contains a description of the original manuscript.]. Evans, Magical Jewels, 1922: 41-50. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 27. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 75.